Unit Code


CCTVSurveillance in Large Cities


Thepresent global society faces significant challenges that affect theirability to achieve the objectives of their desired national andinternational strategies. Factors such as the increasing incidencesof insecurity and terrorism pose significant challenges to thewellbeing and safety of the global society. In response to suchuncertainties, countries across the world have adopted multiplestrategies that aim at ensuring the safety of its population. Amongsuch strategies, include the installation of closed-circuittelevision (CCTV) in cities to ensure the minimization of theincidences of insecurity across the global states. The installationof a closed-circuit television in cities is associated withsignificant benefits to the global society. For example, scholarshold that the installation of a closed-circuit television will reducethe minimization of the increases cases of insecurity by enhancingthe surveillance and monitoring of criminal activities. Moreover,significant evidence reveals that the installation of theclosed-circuit television will reduce the workload of the criminaljustice system. The reduction of the workload of the criminal justicesystem is attributed to the minimization of insecurity cases withinthe city, thereby, the wellbeing of the state. Aside from the above,installation of a closed circuit television within a city benefitsbusiness premises significantly. In this case, the surveillanceprovided by the cameras allows the management team of the business tohave control over the execution of its activities. While installationof the closed-circuit television might appear to improve thewellbeing of the global society, some scholars contradict theadoption of such strategies within the major cities. For instance,such scholars argue that the installation of a closed circuittelevision will facilitate the violation of individual rights toprivacy. Irrespective of the above, the installation of the closedcircuit televisions should be embraced for the wellbeing of theglobal society.

Installingclosed-circuit television in cities has been an issue of significantcontroversy over the recent past. Current research shows that manycities have succeeded in installing the surveillance camera at everyplace. Surveillance camera is one example among other technologicalmovies across the world (Oc 45). The new high technology camera is somuch developed as witnessed by its live viewing of the surveillancefootage from a place where the remote location is allocated. Thisimplies that an operator can have view where the CCTV camera coversclearly as the camera can show video of high resolution. An operatoris able to view all the activities clearly, unlike how the previoussurveillance cameras worked. An operator of the surveillance camerais able to make early alerts at any moment an intruder or anysuspicious or violent act within the city. Research shows that manyinstitutions around the world depend much on the surveillance camera(Farrington 25). Many cities have adopted the use of closed-circuittelevision for security purpose. Studies have shown that, cities thathave implemented the use of high technology surveillance have beensuccessful in curbing the issues of insecurity. The surveillancecamera is so crucial in handling different issues that may interferewith the usual activities within the city. Most cities have thelargest offices and main branches of many parastatals, which arecrucial, hence require advanced surveillance camera. However much thenew high technology surveillance camera faces some challenges it hasproved to be the most effective security watchdog. The surveillanceremains a leading technological invention that has many advantages insecurity matters (Biegelman 89). Therefore,the new high technology surveillance camera should be implemented inall cities.

Closedcircuit surveillance cameras, CCTV developed with high technology areuseful in many circumstances. The surveillance camera is importantduring any investigation. In business, the closed circuit televisionaid in protecting the employees from some frustrated customers whomay be violent. Concurrently, the interaction of customers andemployees can be observed through the closed-circuit television.Employees waste less time or none whenever they realize that they areunder watch. Notably, transparency in business is witnessed to be athigh rate due to the introduction of the surveillance camera onbusiness premises (Snow 178). The success of any current business ispointed to the existence of the surveillance cameras. Thesurveillance cameras in the New York City have helped the employersensure that the employees worked as required hence improving theemployee performance. Surveillance cameras make employees feel thatthey are being watched letting them work carefully on their dutieshence pushing the development of any business organization. Accordingto Farrington, surveillance camera of high technology guides anybusiness premises against an invasion or any theft incidences. Recentstudy that was conducted within New York City Showed that thecriminal caseshasdroppedbymorethan13 percent (27).

Crimesacross different areas seemed to be a rare story as most areas suchas schools are under high surveillance. The surveillance camerasinstalled in schools have assisted the school managers to view allthe school surrounding enabling them give fast response in matters ofany arising issue. Kidnapping of schoolchildren has become a rarestory because of the establishment of high quality surveillance. Druguse and abuse can also be managed in schools and other environmentsaround the cities through the use of surveillance cameras. Thecritical part in any investigation is the record of any event thatoccurred and the only place to get the record is from thesurveillance cameras. Surveillance cameras are too crucial becausethey keep records that could be of great aid in the process ofinvestigation (Shaw 56). The digital surveillance cameras have provento produce images of high quality hence providing clear informationduring any investigation. The surveillance cameras have beenwitnessed in large cities such New Yorkto provide documentationduring any investigation. The surveillance cameras installed at theNew York streets and most buildings have documented many criminalcases that have occured in the city of New York. Documentation of theevents that have been suspected as crimes have been represented asfacts as shown within the documentation (Norris 33).

Thecurrent closed –circuit cameras are the never-blinking eye on aspecific location. The surveillance cameras provide constantmonitoring ensuring security round the clock. The digitalsurveillance cameras enable people to get a prompt response at anyminute. With the presence of surveillance cameras, many people arefree to work round the clock because they are ensured of safety. Tosupport the installment of the surveillance cameras, most cities haveits citizens working till some odd hours most successful businessare opened up to late hours because of the sure existence ofsecurity. All the New York streets are guarded reducing the cost ofemploying many security guards who would have stood around thestreets suffering outside in the cold weather. Most owners of thebusinesses at the streets of New York are at peace as theirbusinesses remain well guarded. The cost which they had spent beforeon hiring a security person was so challenging but presently two tothree people are hired to monitor the closed circuit cameras whichcan sound something much affordable (Fisher 98).

Thedigital surveillance cameras are effective in monitoring. In thestreets and roads of New York, the surveillance cameras are asbeneficial as they can monitor the many issues of traffic on manyroads. Traffic police in New York have succeeded in checking roadsusing the surveillance cameras. The police have adopted the use ofsurveillance cameras that make them respond in case of any issue withfugitive pedestrians or any occurrence of road accident(Norris 112).Use of surveillance cameras enables the traffic police manage manyroads at one time and manage the flow of cars responding quicklywhenever there is any unusual incidence. Safety of the people beingan uncompromised situation, the metropolitan police department of NewYork fought to see that the surveillance cameras of high technologyare installed everywhere. Installation of the surveillance cameras ismost important especially in big businesses such as banks where highsecurity is a critical matter (Biegelman 52).

Surveillancecameras in large cities such as Buffalo and New York have managed tobe successful in ensuring that all city streets are under highsurveillance. The live video images have helped the police inallocating a place where any unusual occurrence takes place. Thecurrent digital surveillance cameras give the most accurate resultsbecause of its high-resolution ability to show clear facts. One ofthe best digital surveillance cameras is the Edge –basedsurveillance that produces the most accurate information (France 68).Some streets that have the Edge-based surveillance cameras in NewYork have proven to curb the issues of insecurity and crimes. Edged–based cameras are affordable. Hence, people have no reason for notpurchasing them to guard their homes as well as support the city ofNew York against insecurity (Fennelly 35).

Undoubtedly,the city of New York is famous for its tourist’s attractions sites.With many visitors coming to New York, security should remain apertinent issue. The New York landmarks and monuments are the besttourist attraction sites that require high surveillance. An analysisby Smith shows that, with the flow of tourists in New York, manycrime activities have been reported to be on the rise. The effectivemeans that has helped in handling the challenging cases of crimes isthe use of surveillance cameras all over the tourist’s attractionsites (88). The rising number of crimes has branded New York, a cityof nightmares. In the recent past the installation of thesurveillance cameras on all corners of the New York City hastranformed the reputation of the city making it safer by twentypercent more than the other large cities of United States. Reportsays that the common crimes are the property crimes covering around36000 crimes in a number while 12000 crimes appear to be the violentcrimes. In examining the figures, it is a sound proves to have thesurveillance cameras installed to make the city safer and thedevelopment to forge ahead. The installation of closed-circuittelevision shows a rise in the provision of security on personal orpublic property hence reducing the property crimes by more than 80percent (Oc 94).

Recentanalysis by Biegelman show that many business owners living withinthe city have majored in investing in the New York security camerasand surveillance equipment to keep their properties safe (58). Somehomes have also acquired the surveillance camera to maintain securityat high standards. It is important the many citizens in New Yorkacquire the surveillance camera to promote the existence of highlevel security (Oc 33). Investing in New York high-qualitysurveillance cameras will ensure that the city is 98 percent securedifferent from the past. As a city known and branded as a city thathas never slept, the citizens of the city should take responsibilityand make good use of the surveillance cameras. Having all thecitizens embrace the use of the new high technology surveillancecameras ensures that the economy of the state will rise from thelevel it was to a better place. Implementation of the use ofsurveillance camera in the city of New York will enable more touriststo visit there because of the assurance of their security (France63). Installing the New York surveillance system symbolizes that onecan be sure of safety at which the system can be bought at affordableprice. Installation of the new high technology cameras across NewYork City is such a fascinating implementation that the other stateshave witnessed its success from their observation on New York City.The most critical matter is the implementation of the surveillancecameras that control the security and provide better safety to thecitizens of New York. The economic development of the state relies onthe state of security matters. Implementing the use of cameras is ameasure that ensure that the economy of the country is well becausethe security existing is of high standard (Fennelly 74).

Eventhe very presence of CCTV decreases instances of crime. Criminals areafraid of committing crimes as they never know who is watching. Inthe United Kingdom, where the use of CCTV cameras is extensive, therates of crime have decreased significantly over the years. Thismakes people feel safe and secure when conducting their activitiesregardless of the time of the day. Instant response from lawenforcers guarantee safety even more since operators of CCTVs cancommunicate to authorities in an instance (France 34).

Theimplementation of the surveillance cameras across the New York Cityhas caused major conflicts in which people have come up with verymany controversies surrounding their use. Personal Privacy is onecritical issue that no other person should interfere or violate.However, the use of surveillance camera brings every corner of theplace under watch, which is an issue that many citizens do notadvocate for. Many citizens have complained that surveillance camerasinterfere with their privacy. The surveillance cameras are,therefore, associated with loss of privacy by the users. Theoperators of surveillance cameras have been associated with engagingin some actions of abusing the cameras. Some of the operators havebeen found to be associates to some criminals (France 52). Thesurveillance camera operators who associate with criminals subjectthe innocent citizens to the heinous acts of the criminals. Thesurveillance cameras’ operators are people who are not perfect fromthe other civilians, and they are, therefore, prone to acceptingbribes from the criminals to give out the information about thetargeted areas. The camera operators receive bribes hence exposingthe information about the buildings under surveillance. Some of thesurveillance systems are invasive, and ostensibly, hence noconsistence of security can be assured to people. Sometimes thesurveillance operators may decide to cooperate with the intruders bygiving them information about rich people under surveillance (Fisher124).

Othercontroversies of the new high camera surveillance arise on the issuesof the cost. Some citizens claim that they cannot afford to installCCTV camera at their homes. Some citizens feel that they are forcedto engage in the installation of the surveillance cameras yet they donot see the value of it. Another claim is that the surveillancecamera can be destroyed easily hence no guarantee that the securitycan hold throughout out the day and night. The positioning of thesurveillance cameras is too visible for any criminal to destroy themhence destructing the transmission to the main center of thelocation. Most of the surveillance cameras have audibility problems(Fennelly 56). It is not easy to hear the information, which theintruder or a criminal said during any suspicious act. The motion ofa subject away from the stationed surveillance camera, theprobability is that the sound will not be heard. The owner of the newsurveillance camera may remain to be dependent on the securitysurveillance equipment hence lack of it, or failure means no securityto the owner. Another controversy is that the surveillance cameraloses its meaning in case of a little scratch implying that thesecurity surveillance equipment is not durable and reliable (Fisher102). Its reliability is not that convenient in case of anyobstruction between the camera and the subject there is a failure ofit functioning or recording any occurrence. At any case of signalinterruption, the surveillance camera does not record any informationat the time an intruder appears. The system is also prone to hacking.Criminals hack the surveillance system in a case where theft orterrorism plan is underway (Farrington 22).


Varioustechnologies can be used to curb crime in any state. Some of the newtechnologies include facial recognition systems, satellite imaging,and automatic license plate scanners. The new technologies help inrecovering lost properties such stolen vehicles. Facial recognitionsystems aid in comparing photographs to match two different images.Police used facial recognition to identify the real identity of thecriminals who usually hide their identity to engage in a criminal.The existences of many types of technological equipment to solvecrimes have supplemented the surveillance cameras in fighting againstcrimes. The opposition to the use of CCTV as a security measure hasbeen criticized on ground that, it violates the fundamentalprinciples of privacy. Opponents also argue that, they are notefficient in providing security since they are manned by human beingswho can be compromised. In addition the cameras can have technicalfault, failing to execute their work effectively. Conclusively,surveillance cameras have proved to be the effective means ofpromoting security as in the case of the United Kingdom despite thefew controversies. To enjoy the full benefit of security, necessaryfor social and economic development of societies, New York and othermajor cities in the world must invest in the high CCTV technologies.


Biegelman,Martin T. IdentityTheft Handbook: Detection, Prevention, and Security.Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley, 2009. Print.

Farrington,David P., Martin Gill, Sam J. Waples, and Javier Argomaniz. &quotTheEffects Of Closed-circuit Television On Crime: Meta-analysis Of AnEnglish National Quasi-experimental Multi-site Evaluation.&quotJournalof Experimental Criminology3 (2007): 21-38. Print.

Fennelly,Lawrence J. Handbookof Loss Prevention and Crime Prevention.4th ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, 2004. Print.

Fisher,Bonnie. Encyclopediaof Victimology and Crime Prevention.Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE Publications, 2010. Print.

France,Alan. Pathwaysand Crime Prevention: Theory, Policy, and Practice.Cullompton, Devon, UK: Willan Pub., 2007. Print.

Norris,Clive. Surveillance,Closed Circuit Television, and Social Control.Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 1998. Print.

Oc,Taner. SaferCity Centres: Reviving the Public Realm.London: Paul Chapman, 1997. Print.

Shaw,Margaret. UrbanCrime Prevention and Youth at Risk: Compendium of PromisingStrategies and Programmes from around the World.Montreal: International Centre for the Prevention of Crime, 2005.Print.

Smith,Martha J. Theoryfor Practice in Situational Crime Prevention.Monsey, N.Y.: Criminal Justice 2003. Print.

Snow,Dennis A. PlantEngineers` Reference Book.2nd ed. London: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002. Print.