The Scientific Revolution in Europe During the 17th and 18th Centuries

TheScientific Revolution in Europe During the 17thand 18thCenturies

TheScientific Revolution in Europe During the 17thand 18thCenturies

Scientificrevolution is a series of changes that transforms views of a societyand nature. Scientist and scholars all over Europe have madesignificant contributions in the areas of Physics, Mathematics,Astronomy, Biology and Chemistry using their inventions. This paperexamines some of these contributions made during the 17thand 18thcenturies.

Onewould be astonished to realize that the scientific revolutionassociated with great scientist such as Francis Bacon and IsaacNewton began much earlier as 12thor even 13thcentury. The method of thinking, of Aristotle, a Greek philosopherand a scientist around 400BC, formed the rudiments of a newrevolution in human thinking. He would examine, make observations anddrive to a conclusion.

Therise of academies and learned societies such as Royal Society inEngland (RSE) formed in 1660 and the Academy of Science (AOS) inFrance formed in 1666, helped scientist come together and share theirideas. RSE produced scientists who were not only architects, but alsoastronauts and anatomists. Isaac Newton was one of the greatestfigures in science who was a fellow of RSE. Apart from discoveringthe law of gravity and inventing of calculus, Newton discovered thatwhite light is made out of tiny particles whose characteristics canbe illustrated by the law of mechanics. Although his rivals such asHuygens dismissed this theory, Newton’s pressure was so immense andhis philosophy was accepted.

TheGreek newly invention of the telescope helped greatly in thediscovery of planets and other objects in the heavenly bodies. Later,it was fitted with a mechanical clock to help record events bothterrestrial and celestial with greater precision. Galileo Galilei, anastronomer used it and discovered that the moon was mountainousunlike the earlier suggestion that it was a gaseous matter. Althoughhe later made some other observations, which turned to be unreal, foran instant that all the planets revolve around Jupiter, it madeothers, such as Isaac Newton to study the heavens more and came upwith mechanistic views that became the dominant model in Europeanthought today.

Inscience, new ideas in biology were brought about by the invention ofsome tools such as the microscope. This was a major importance as faras the revolution was concerned in that it humans got moreinformation on the living things. By the help of the microscope,scientists such as Edward Jennar discovered the vaccine for Smallpox,which was a big problem at the time, and brought awareness ofreducing the growth of organisms by the way of antiseptic surgery. Italso came in handy when Carolu Linnaeus arranged different forms oflife for classification since organisms evolve from simple to complexforms.

Sciencehas also played a huge role in the industrial revolution. Theinvention of the steam engine by James Watt and the growth ofpetroleum technology to provide fuel, for example, in the 18thcentury saw transport and communication sectors improve to theenormous increase in productivity and easing work in factories,mines, ships and railways.

Inconclusion, scientific revolution in Europe has helped us see theworld as a whole move to another level. The invention and use ofmicroscope and petroleum technology for example are some of the mostimportant elements we cannot do without in the present day.