TheMovements Behind The Labor Workers In China.
Theissue of movements behind labor workers is a major concern for thepeople of china. The reason being it is through the movements thatindustry workers, casuallaborers, farmers and other low-class workersget a chance to fight for their rights (Perry, E. 1993). From theearly twentieth century, china has experienced mass movements byworkers trying to demand what they term as fairness and employeefreedom. During the 20thcentury, industrial and factory workers are known to have beeninvolved in forming up parties to enhance their ways of demandingwhat they needed (China`s Rising Labor Movement). That has been theChinese trend up to the 21stcentury, where workers have a habit of striking and demonstrating inthe streets.
Duringthe revolution era in China, labor management within factories andindustries experienced a lot of challenges among the differentclasses of workers. That eventually propelled the strikes of 1940sthat not only aimed at indicating prosperity, but also as an act ofinflation (Perry, E. 1993). The strikes in the era were mostlyorganized by the less skilled workers who worked in the localindustries as foremen. Due to the considerable tension caused by theworkers, there emerged the need to equate the fate of politicalparties with that of the Chinese labor. Hence, that gave rise todifferent classes of workers forming different movement parties(China`s Rising Labor Movement).
Primarily,the Guomindang and the Communist partisans are said to be claimantsto the spirit of May Fourth. The May Fourth is a worker`s movementparty formed by factory workers as a way of addressing their issueswith the management. Industrialization was at the time thought to bethe only future hope for the country. Communists and Nationalistsinvolve themselves in great efforts in enlisting labor movements. Theworkers in theindustries are known to have different interests, andthat makes them differ in their mobilization activities. Hence, themobilization activities carried out by the parties were found to belargely complementary.
Startingwith the Communists, they made tremendous efforts in trying to enlistlabor movements using political banners. During the campaign process,the state, parties and labor parties are seen to undergo a number ofchallenges. The challenges directly and indirectly caused an impacton the entire economy in the state, mostly in industries having inmind the fact that industrialization is the key hope for the country.The Communist movement party ideological formulation mainly stressedon the significance of class struggle. Contrary to that, the GMDmovement party aimed at the necessity of enhancing class harmony(Smith, S. 2002). That makes it evident that non-of they is ready toalign themselves with the realities emphasized by the Shanghai labor.
Itis then that the deep division among the working classes grew itsroots. As a result, both parties led into a fragmented constituencyresulting in a conflict between the two (Smith, S. 2002). Therefore,an educated guess in its way hypothesizes that the communist struck aresponsive chord within the congregation of the poorly paid unskilledworkers mostly in the large factories. The Guomindang party, on theother hand, develops a constituency among the white collar workerswho favor class harmony over the radical implications of theCommunist labor movement party.
TheMay thirtieth movement from the communist party is known to beginwith the cotton miller industries which most of its workers were lessskilled. Their demonstrations in the early 1920s and 1930s werenotably free from outside political situations. That means that allthe activities happening in the course of the strike occur as aresult of the team of workers who are struggling to change thedivision of working classes.
TheCommunist in conjunction with the Nationalist started a battle aimedat controlling Chinese labor. That was due to the Chinese controllabor which seems to fail in its work that is equalizing the workersregardless of their level of skills. Guomindang, communists, andwestern scholars eventually recognize that the May fourth movement isessential more than they think. The action is viewed to be acomprehensive watershed in the modern history of China. It is afterthe realization of the groups that they got the motivation regardingthe way they viewed aspects in the labor sector (Smith, S. 2002).
Afterward,the students in Beijing demonstrated on the basis of peace and treatyending the world war one. In June 5, just a day after thepupils’arrests as a result of their demonstration, workers andshopkeepers in Shanghai town also held strikes. According to A ReportOn An Investigation of the Peasant Movement in Human (1927), theless skilled workers led by the factory foremen were the principalintermediaries of the massive events in the industrial area. Thechief leaders of the gangs brought together a good number of thieves,pickpockets and comments to be under their control. The work of thesegroups was ensuring stoppage of the daily activities which werecarried out in the large factories. The demonstration activities alsoinvolved the beggars whose role was simply to refrain from thebeginning of the movementup to the end of the strike. According toSmith, S. (2002), the prostitutes in the town were also not left outsince, in the reports, they were reported of substituting their usualnighttime solicitation with patriotic songs.
Itis after all the movement activities that the difference between highand low skilled workers comes to therealization. That led to thejoining of political leaders in the movement parties. Thus making thechanges politically based and hence need for parliamentary motions todiscuss with the interests of the demonstrators as well. Theprevailing political atmosphere changes with the declaration ofunited front between Guomindang and the Communists in the early 1924,(Quotations from Mao Tse Tung, Chapter 2).
However,the Shanghai society is found to have a large population of laborersbeing entirely ignorant who suffer hardship and deprivation. Theother portion consists of traitorous businessmen making living beunder foreign capitalism (Perry, E. 1993). Other partsof the Shanghaifamily consists of swindlers, prostitutes, gangsters, the evilpolice, black curtain writers, criminal, politicians and finally asmall group of young students. As a result of this, if a nationalcongress convincement is to happen, then it must be in Shanghai. Fromthe May Fourth strike by the Shanghai members,it`s evident that thecommands of the gang leaders are active than that of the municipalcouncil (Perry, E. 1993). Thereby, the only way to handle them is byestablishing legal unions within the industry. Introduction ofShanghai unions is not only an urgent matter, but it is also an issueof Shanghai social order.
Allin all, the Communists were not the only ones in the quest of makingthe Shanghai working class. Politicians from Guomidang and somefactory foremen equally channeled labor activism in favorabledirections to their interests. In the year following the May Fourth,they sponsored the formation of more than twelve labor associationsin Shanghai (Smith, S. 2002). These unions include IndustrialVolunteer Society, Shanghai Staff and Workers Association amongothers. The post-May Fourth Shanghai labor movement has shiftingpatterns of conflict and cooperation between conservatives andradicals.
Toconclude with, the issue of labor movements in China, merelycharacters the way in which discourse of nationalism was eventuallydisseminated to the workers of Shanghai. Nationalist ideologiessearched ways of bringing national salvation to the people, bytrapping people`s latent potential. The idiom is known to reach itsmaximum influence during the May Fourth movement, when a demoticnation conception became entrenched (Smith, S. 2002). Thenationalists, as a result,tyed their national fate to people`srights, people’s will and the politics of ordinarycitizens.
China`sRising Labor Movement. (n.d.). Retrieved December 9, 2014.
AReportOn An Investigation of the Peasant Movement in Human. (1927,March 1). Retrieved December 9, 2014.
Quotationsfrom Mao Tse Tung, Chapter 2. (n.d.). Retrieved December 9, 2014.
Smith,S. (2002). Likecattle and horses. Nationalism and labor in Shanghai,1895-1927.Durham N.C.: Duke University Press.
Perry,E. (1993). Shanghaion strike. The politics of Chinese labor.Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.