The Maharajas and their Patronage of the Arts at the Victoria and Albert

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The Maharajas and their Patronage of the Arts at the Victoria andAlbert Museum

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Summary

India’s history is endowed with attractive art, in the form ofornaments, jewelry, among other adornments. From the start of the18th era towards the mid twentieth century, the altering functions ofthe maharajas, as well as their patronage of arts, in Europe andIndia led to the creation of attractive objects, symbolizing royalstatus, authority and identity. The maharajas refer to ancient Indiankings, ruling during the era of dynasties. Each king had their uniqueway of depicting their power, which was achieved through parades,where the kings would be dressed in jewelry riding on equallydecorated horses or elephants. The paper explores the exceptionallyrich visual Indian culture, from the 18th era to mid 20th. The paperreveals how the maharajas’ patronage of arts, in India and Europelead to impressive and attractive objects symbolizing royal status,authority, as well as identity.

The paper starts by introducing a historical study of maharajas. Itis apparent that religious, political, social and culture changesinfluence India’s history. The maharajas emerged as a form ofkingship, deriving from the Hindu belief in darshan. Thismeans that kings had the capability to transfer grace to theirspectators. In observance of the darshan, Indian kings startedto parade themselves adorned in jewelry and different ornaments todepict their influence in their kingdom. Among the many roles of thekings was the patronage of art. The V&ampA museum contains anexhibition of the maharajas, and just as the name suggests, the greatking ought to look splendid and magnificent. The exhibitioncontributes in the historical discussion of the maharajas via ananalysis of the art works related to the kings, which are availablein the museum.

The Maharajas and their Patronage of the Arts at the Victoria andAlbert Museum

Over the centuries, India has been made up of separate, competingkingdoms, which represent different cultures and spiritualities. Themaharajas and their patronage of the arts as presented in the V&ampAmuseum, is an exhibition that results in greater comprehension of therich diversity of cultures and intricate political dimensionsunderlying present day India. The phrase maharaja stirs up the visionof magnificence, and refers to a ‘great king’. From the start ofthe 18th era to the mid 20th era, the altering function of themaharajas, as well as their patronage of arts, in India and Europe,led to the making of marvelous and attractive objects symbolizingroyal status, authority and identity. The revered and secularauthority of an Indian king was outstandingly articulated during theostentatious public parades, in the celebration of royal occasions aswell as spiritual ceremonies. During the ceremonies, the ruler wouldbe clothed lavishly with jewels riding in an elephant or horse, andaccompanied by attendants bearing emblematic elements of kingship.

The paper explores the exceptionally rich visual Indian culture, fromthe 18th era to mid 20th. The paper reveals how the maharajas’patronage of arts, in India and Europe lead to impressive andattractive objects symbolizing royal status, authority, as well asidentity.

History and Mystery of the Maharajas

Indian ideas of kingship borrowed from ancient texts and altered overtime in reaction to political, social, cultural and religiouschanges. As at early 1700s, the concept of kingship arose, this hadsteadily and selectively advanced from a merge of Buddhist, Muslimand Hindu ideals (Haidar &ampStewart 2014,p. 37). Derived from the Hindu belief structure, the idea ofdarshan, the auspicious ability to see and be seen by superiorbeing, be it a god or kings, became key to the concept of kingship.Observing the king in all his magnificence was a behavior thatshifted blessing and grace to the spectators. To implement darshan,a lavishly clothed ruler riding a richly decorated horse or elephantsmade himself public during major public parades, where he would besurrounded by assistants wearing symbolic traits of kingship. Thepublic parades acted as a demonstration of the king’s secular andholy authority guaranteed the welfare of the empire, followers, andstate and confirmed that the virtuous king was blessed and directedby divine powers.

In India, kings were supposed to practice rajadharma,referring to the responsibilities and conduct suitable to a ruler.These involved military and hunting prowesses – in historic Indianwriting, kings are noted to belong to warrior social organizations,whose major responsibility included fighting to safeguard the dynasty(Jaffer2007,p.33-39). At times, royal women were as well trained onmartial arts. Hunting availed the rule the practice required whenpreparing for battle. Diplomatic and administrative roles – a kingexecuted state business via durbar, which is a royal meeting.The meeting attended by nobles and officials, while the happeningswere directed through stern order, which differed by area. Most royalcourts as well held public meetings where ordinary civilians werefree to present their issues, disagreements and different problems tothe king. Religious rituals – to gratify people’s needs, a kingmay construct worship areas to back other faiths, and give out moneyfor maintaining shrines, which were a dedication to holy people.Artistic practice – royal roles were as well met via supportingsingers, artisans, poets and architects. Via these acts, the suitableking formed a stable surrounding where his followers could executetheir personal duties.

The Mughal Empire was still in command of a large part of India in1700 however, after the passing away of Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707,the kingship was overwhelmed by interior disagreement and weakgovernance. The ruling gap resulted in an advent politicalorganization comprising of various lesser kingdoms. The Marathas fromcentral west India formed a union in early 1700s, bringing in unisonthe political and military authority of their free states. Clansfollowing the Sikh spirituality in Punjab area of current India, aswell as Pakistan, governed several principalities from the regions.The clans governed widespread lands all through north and centralIndia, resulting in disagreement with the Marathas, arising powersand Sikhs (Prior&amp Adamson2001,p.17). The child of a Muslin military official took overleadership in 1782, transforming Mysore to a region of artisticpatronage, in addition to economic and military hub.

The English East India organization had altered its operations fromtrading to become a main military as well as political force,contesting with local leaders for a controlling position in India. Asat 1840s, a majority of the regional authorities were under Britishrule, due to military conquest or via uncomfortable consent due tothe need for self-preservation (Allen 2004, p. 17-21). Britishleadership in the Indian nation was referred to Raj. TheBritish administration in the end took direct regulation over regionsin the past headed by the East India organization, not referred toBritish India, and indirect power of the remaining region. BecauseIndia was huge, rich and productive during the period of its captureby Britain, it was referred as a jewel in the crown. Included in theorder of the kingdom, Indian kings gained recognition from Britons,as princes or local chiefs in place of kings. Despite being giventheir freedom of borders, the British progressed to impeded in thedaily operation within their states, restricting royal power andremoving rulers regarded as inappropriate. The maharajas took up theadvent British rule in several manners, and were not just Rajpuppets. They progressed to ensure order in their states, collect taxfrom followers, allot income, and support culture actions in manners,which fused conventional royal role with western governance models.

India regained its sovereignty in 1947, from British governance, andmany princes voluntarily consented the Instrument of Accession,through which their borders were included into the adventnation-states of Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. The princesprogressed to hold their positions, while others progressed to play acrucial political function. The Indian constitution has assured theprinces of their rights, as well as allowance, which were denied in1971 by Indira Gandhi the then Prime Minister. Facing rising expensesand dropping earnings, most princes were compelled into selling theirbelonging. However, the maharajas have survived, acclimatizing toaltering conditions as was the scenario during the British andMughals rule. Despite the impoverishment of some, others havewell-known political professions. Some maharajas have altered theirpalaces to hotels, opened their many collections to become museums,opened wildlife and tradition preservation programs among others.Most maharajas progress to be persuasive signs of regional identityand progress to execute their royal roles, working as protectors ofthe outstanding traditions of India’s royal courts.

Maharaja’s Arts at the Victoria and Albert Museum

A life-size elephant is the initial image from the museum’sexhibition that interestingly evaluates the magnificence, as well aspageantry of Indian royal courts beginning in 1700 to self-government(Joanna 2009, p. 1). The attractive pachyderm is totally clothes inits regalia, prepared for the ceremonial public procession aimed atdisplaying a complete ruling authority, decorated with numerouscanopies, fans as well as a sole bejeweled elephant-size danglyearring, acting as the desire of all fashionable teenagers currently.The specific group of silver 19th era ceremonial objects, referred toan iawajama, has been borrowed by the royal house of Mewar, and itstopping is an exceedingly stylized silver howdah (Joanna 2009, p. 1).The exhibition demonstrates with a lot of style the methods throughwhich Indian rulers adapted to the altering political coalitionsduring the 18th, 19th as well as 20th era up to self-government, andthe manner in which their patronage altered to suite the prevailingauthority of the day.

In the final presentation room, there is a polished greenRolls-Royce, which is a sign of superiority and weighs 2,500kilograms, which was divided and reassembled to fit in the exhibitionroom (Victoria and Albert Museum). The magnificent method ofroyal transport was specially made by Maharana Bhupal Singh duringhis term as crown prince, and is a symbol of the extreme to whichcanniest of India’s kings agreed to the prevailing Europeanrepresentation of modernity acquiring the trappings of European life.Whereas still appearing at instances in detailed traditional Indianclothing, performing their roles as supposed by follower andcomplying to an exoticised British aspiration of kingdom, most ofthem managed to concurrently project themselves as consummate Englishgentlemen. The narrative of the altering influences and traditions,which evolved amid the predominance of elephants clothed in 19th erafinery, as well as the Rolls-Royce in the 1920s, is narrated via anoutstanding presentation of costumes, paintings, weapons, decorativeobjects, and jewels (Victoria and Albert Museum). Theyillustrate the intricate, frequently uncomfortable, as well as insome instances brutal transition from the governance of the Mughalkingdom to the rise of the East India organization, via theimposition of British governance to the period of self-rule.

The V&ampA public display in the first section demonstrate the ideaof what it was to become king. There are wonderful 18th and 19th erapainting demonstrating several Indian rulers involved in thepropitious act of publicizing themselves (Joanna 2009, p. 1). Theyparade themselves adorned with jewels at durbars. In other instances,they sit with their courtiers and appear to be enjoying themagnificence of their gardens, or taking part in several actionsformulated to depict their horsemanship, their hunting prowess, theirgenerosity, their intelligence and most importantly patronage of thearts. A romanticized, as well as greatly fragrant kind of palace lifeis demonstrated in the frail paintings. There are scenes of classywomen that are playing polo with their leaders, kings and princesmoving around in their gardens, while fishing rather inadequatelywith a bow and arrow made of gold, while at the same time listeningto music. A specifically magnificent painting depicts Maharaja TakhatSingh from Marwar viewing an elephant fighting. Two elephants thatare decorated with jewelry are being prepared to battle one anotherwith the assistance of firecrackers placed below them, whereas themaharaja views with uncultivated delight from his throne, painted ingold.

The middle section demonstrates, again via paintings and objects, thedecline of the Mughal rule, the political differences associated withthe decline, and the emergence of very strong regional leaders inline with the development of the East India from a trading company toa military base (Joanna 2009, p. 1). This is a completely complexnarrative, of altering political and military coalitions, theemergence of the Maratha soldier forces, and the arrival of adversaryEuropean authorities. The section is followed by an attractive roomwhere colossal oil painting if durbars have been placed, involvingone of the Delhi durbar from 1903 British kingdom. Photographs becomepart of the narrative, mainly in form of formal pose studiorepresentations of maharajas that are seated. They look amazinglyglum below the mass of their stunning jewels. One magnificentphotograph dates 1889, depicts Maharaja Sayajirao Geekwad from Barodastaring despondently at the camera. This is because his neck, arms,fingers, head, chest and ankles are weighed with diamonds (Joanna2009, p. 1).

The exhibition progresses to track the fast embracing of Westerndepictions of authority by the Indians kings, the western methodpalaces they constructed, the exceptional detailed crystalchandeliers, furniture as well as different accoutrements. These weremainly custom-made from Osler, while the self-portraits were madefrom ermine and crowns, seating in front of classical architecturalbackdrops, having chains, as well as medals and jewel-encrustedpendants. In the twentieth era, Indian maharajas were moving toEurope and US, hiring people to create their self-portrayals in thefashionable methods of the era, and hiring elaborate decorated sarismade from French chiffon. The maharaja is a classy exhibition,depicting the V&ampA’s capability to inform on the narrative of anintricate and necessary political and culture evolution of India.

References

Allen C,2004,&nbspMaharajas:Resonance from the past.London: Mercury.

CrillR &amp Jariwala K,2010,The Indian portrait,1560-1860. Ahmedabad,India: Mapin Pub.

Haidar N N &amp Stewart C A, 2014,Treasures from India:jewels from the Al-Thani collection. NewYork:Yale University Press

Jaffer A,2007,Made for Maharajas: Adesign diary of a princely India.Delhi: Lustre.

Joanna, P, 2009, India’s royal age of bling: arts The story of themaharajas is told in treasure, finds Joanna Pitman, The Times,1-1.

Prior K &amp Adamson J,2001,Maharajas` jewels.Ahmedabad: Mapin.

The Field Museum, 2014, Maharaja: The Splendor of India’sRoyal Courts. Web http://maharaja.fieldmuseum.org/

Victoria and Albert Museum V&ampA, 2014, Maharaja: TheSplendour of India’s Royal Courts. Web.http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/m/maharaja-the-splendour-of-indias-royal- courts/