Technical Writing

TECHNICAL WRITING 23

Theory: Questions about Concepts

Question 1

Science is viewed as a social enterprise because it is a fragment ofthe bigger community where it is located. It is molded through valuesof the overriding culture where scientists’ take part and survive,sharing numerous of its presumptions, objectives, prejudices andchallenges. Kuhn’s book, The Structure of ScientificRevolutions, refers to the sets of scientific presumptions asparadigms. Paradigms are acquired tacitly via observing and imitating“scientists and practitioners in the field and they are learnedexplicitly through education, textbooks, and specific practices”(Kuhn, 1996). Kuhn progresses to explain that paradigms restrictthinking, as well as provide the backing and circumstance fordiscovery. The nine-dot problem is an illustration on how paradigmsrestrict thinking in addition to making it possible to back andcreate a framework for discovery. The context of the square formedthrough the dots pattern acts as the clear way of connecting thedots.

The nine-dot problem shows how researchers face the recurrenthardship of performing and presenting their work. Thus, they useparadigms as social means for checking on individual judgment andmistake, making science possible. The model relates to thephilosophical underpinning of the course by explaining how learnersare involved in learning the paradigms of their fields. In thesimilar manner, there is no sole rhetorical condition, which appliesto all examples of communication. Instead, all human endeavors tocommunicate happen within innumerable rhetorical conditions, whichare specific to the particular communication moments. When peoplewrite, they face a rhetorical situation. There is the purpose,audience, stance, genre as well as medium to bear in mind. These arenecessary aspects, which should be cautiously contemplated.

Writing has many purposes, and it is necessary to concentrate on one.Purpose involves entertaining, informing, demonstration or persuasionamong other aspects. The audience has an impact on writing becausethey interpret writing in reference to their anticipations, as wellas experiences. For instance, teachers act as the audience forlearners, thus students ought to be knowledgeable of their teacher’sexpectations when completing assignments. Genres have specificconventions for information presentation, which assists writers inwriting, and readers in reading. When writing, the writer has aparticular view of the topic, which is the stance. Its expressionaffects the presentation of a writer. Medium is how informationtravels from one individual to another. Every medium has exceptionaltraits, influencing what and method of communication. In the similarmanner that Kuhn’s paradigms acts as a social means for checking onindividual judgment in making science possible, the elements ofrhetorical situations help in making communication meaningful.

Question 2

Swales description of genre and discourse community relates to thediscussions, actions and resources from the course modules. This isbecause the course module uses discourse community traits, alsoapparent in Swales’ discussion. Swales (1990), uses six definingtraits, which determine a discourse community. One a discoursecommunity comprises a widely accepted group of similar publicobjectives. The objectives could be formally etched in documents.Second, the discourse community comprises methods ofintercommunication amid its members. Participatory methods differdepending on the society, correspondence, meetings, andcommunications among other aspects. Third, a discourse communityemploys the participatory methods fundamentally to avail informationand response (Swales, 1990). This means that membership refers to uptaking the informational chances. Persons may contribute a yearlycontribution towards the Acoustical Society of America, thoughby not opening any of the communications it becomes improbable tobecome part of the discourse community, despite being society members(Swales, 1990). Four, a discourse community uses and thus comprisesgenres for the communicative advancement of its objectives. Thecommunity has advanced and progresses to advance discourse prospects.These might include appropriating of issues, purpose, form as well asdiscourse aspects, and the significance of texts in operating thediscourse community.

Fifth, the discourse community has gained lexis. The specializationmight include employing lexical items acknowledged to the largerspeech societies in exceptional and technical manners, like in theinformation technology discourse societies, or employing hightechnical terms like in medical societies (Swales, 1990). Most often,the inherent dynamic towards an enhancing collective and particularterminology becomes real via the advancement of society-particularabbreviations. Last, a discourse community comprises of a thresholdpoint of members with an appropriate level of important content, aswell as discourse knowhow. The societies comprise of alteringmemberships as persons join as apprentices. Individuals leave viapassing away or involuntarily. Nonetheless, society’s survivalrelies on a rational ratio amid apprentices and proficient.

According to Swales’, a genre includes a collection ofcommunicative happenings, and members sharing similar communicativeobjectives. The objectives are notable by proficient members from theparent discourse community, thus comprise the genre’sjustification. The justification molds the schematic system of thediscourse and impacts, in addition to restrains selection of contentand technique. Communicative objective is an advantaged criterion,which works to ensure the scope of the genre is intently envisaged,focusing on similar rhetorical deed. Apart from rationale, examplesof a genre display several sequences of sameness concerningtechnique, structure, target audience and content. Similarly, thecourse modules use the phrase genre in grouping documents, whichappear to share objective and audience and within the framework ofthe society where the author and audience are based.

Question 3

References are an integral section in any research report. They arethe document sources important to aspects of the argument, as well asdefining techniques and materials employed. Authors need to cite thework of others when completing their research articles. Theeffectiveness of an advent argument in new research depends on theauthor’s ability to describe what is already known in the fieldthey are writing (Hyland, 2004). To present such information, theauthor cites the work of other authors as an illustration of previousresearch that has already been conducted. In addition, citingborrowed work in a manner of helping the author to establish theircredibility within the field. When credibility is established, theauthor forms common ground with target readers, and a collectiveframework for comprehending the new research. Research citing acts asa disciplinary shorthand in creating collective perspective withdifferent individuals of a research society.

The reasons for citing other authors work connect to rhetoricalsituation elements. To appeal to the audience, it is necessary thatthe author is persuasive. Citation is one method of persuadingaudiences because it demonstrates that what has been written isfactual and has been properly researched. It is possible to introducea new genre by using already established genres to explain the newone, which is achieved via citing other writers’ work, who sharethe same genre as that of the new research. The connection ofcitations to rhetorical elements supplements Hyland’s empiricaldefinition of linguistic sequences of citation. Hyland (2004) arguesthat referencing previous work is necessary in academic writing.Citation works as a method of meeting priority commitments, as wellas an approach for backing assertions. He notes the relevance ofcitation in persuading audiences by availing explanation forarguments.

Question 4

Cohesion acts as the textual manner of instigating understanding.Cohesion is achieved through unity and coherence. Something is saidto be unified when the parts link to other over-arching principles(Penrose &amp Katz, 2010).Unity is hence the advancement of a central notion via recurrence ofchains. It linked to cohesion because the recurrence of the similarlexical item acts as the initial level of cohesion. Recurrencehappens via repetition of the similar phrase where a stringentidentity association is upheld (Penrose&amp Katz, 2010). Conversely, stringent identity isunnecessary even when phrases are in the end morphologicallyidentical. Recurrence is attainable via synonymy, which refers toitems sharing the similar referent and is possible to substitutewithout altering the meaning. Recurrences result in unity whererecurring items allow a text to advance its fundamental topic via aseries of substitutions where there might be interaction amid lexicalrepetition, equivalence as well as synonymy.

Coherence includes deep and surface syntactic associations. Surfacestructure is a representation of the precise textual shape, as wellas sentence content. Deep structure refers to the formal and originalkernels. Deep structures become apparent via sentence evaluation toits basic arguments, its precise or possible recurrence (Penrose&amp Katz, 2010). Recurrences result in coherence owing torepetitiveness and physical positioning, as well as importance.Cohesion comprises unity through manifestation of a recurrence chain.Coherence results in cohesion via manifestation of semantic as wellas syntactic associations amid links from the chain (Penrose&amp Katz, 2010). Coherence and unity become apparent viasentence structure, position, order and number of recurrences(Penrose &amp Katz, 2010).The phrasal coordination methods evaluated in class, work in thesimilar manner as the recurrences apparent in unity and coherence.Thus, co- and subordination links to the basic notion of unity bydeveloping a central idea via chains recurrence.

Practice: Tasks that use our rhetorical approach to compose

Task 1: Persuasive complaint letter

302 Main Street

Springfield, OH 3321

(513) 623-9800

January 10, 2015

Manager, Customer Relations

Fast Internet Providers

532 West 25th Street

New York, NY 20011

Dear Sir,

RE: Poor Internet Service

Last month, I requested for internet provision from your company toSpringfield, 302 Main Street.

Regrettably, I have not been able to enjoy the fast and uninterruptedinternet I expected from you. I am disappointed because the internetinstallation was not performed well, which makes it extremely slowand impossible to use.

In resolving the issue, I will appreciate your prompt re-installationof the internet. If it is not possible then I request a money refundfor installation fee charged. Enclosed is a copy of the installationfee.

I look forward to a response and decision on how to solve my problemwithin a period of one week. Please communicate by phone at home.

Sincerely,

Mary Meyers

Enclosure(s)

Rhetorical situation – the writer is interested in havingfast internet, which compels them to write the letter. The reason forwriting is to persuade the internet providers to act fast byrectifying the internet problem. The genre is a letter to theinternet provider. The audience is “Fast Internet Providers”. Thetopic is on poor service. The context is the slow internet, whichaffects using the service.

Highest-level arrangement – it involves the inside address,date, outside address, greeting, subject, body, signature andenclosure.

Hierarchical argumentative –

Last month, I requested for internet provision from your company toSpringfield, 302 Main Street __ This introduces the generalreason for writing

Regrettably, I have not been able to enjoy the fast and uninterruptedinternet I expected from you __ Specification of the mainissue

I am disappointed because the internet installation was not performedwell, which makes it extremely slow and impossible to use __Problem/ Claim of liability

In resolving the issue, I will appreciate your prompt re-installationof the internet ___ Call to action

If it is not possible then I request a money refund for installationfee charged __ Specific request

Enclosed is a copy of the installation fee ___ Proof ofpayment

I look forward to a response and decision on how to solve my problemwithin a period of one-week Timeframe for action

Please communicate by phone at home ___ Call to action

Meta-discourse – interpersonal meta-discourse is apparent inthe letter by attitude markers, like the use of the phrase“regrettably” in the second sentence. Emphatics are apparent inthe third sentence “I am disappointed”.

Reference phrasing – An event happened, the subject beinginternet installation. “I am disappointed because the internetinstallation was not performed well, which makes it extremely slowand impossible to use”.

Discussion of emphasis – the letter uses simple sentencesbecause it is intended at persuading the internet provider to act, byre-installing the internet service.

Paragraph cohesion – the letter achieves cohesion by linkingsentences through repetition of ideas employed in precedingsentences.

Task 1: Obnoxious/Inimical

302 Main Street

Springfield, OH 3321

(513) 623-9800

January 10, 2015

Manager, Customer Relations

Fast Internet Providers

532 West 25th Street

New York, NY 20011

Dear Sir,

RE: Poor Internet Service

I am highly disappointed by the poor internet service despite payingfor fast and uninterrupted internet provision last month.

Your company claims to provide the best internet installation, yetthe installation performed in my house is highly unsatisfactory.

I expect that within a period of one week you will make a promptresponse to the problem by re-installing the internet. If not, then Iwill consider further action towards having a money refund for theinstallation fee.

I look forward to your quick response via phone.

Sincerely,

Mary Meyers

Enclosure(s)

Rhetorical situation – the writer is interested in havingfast internet, which compels them to write the letter. The reason forwriting is to express disappointment to the internet providers due toslow and unreliable internet. The genre is a letter to the internetprovider. The audience is “Fast Internet Providers”. The topic ison poor service. The context is the slow internet, which affectsusing the service.

Highest-level arrangement – it involves the inside address,date, outside address, greeting, subject, body, signature andenclosure.

Hierarchical argumentative –

I am highly disappointed by the poor internet service despite payingfor fast and uninterrupted internet provision last month ___Problem articulation

Your company claims to provide the best internet installation, yetthe installation performed in my house is highly unsatisfactory_ Claim of insufficiency

I expect that within a period of one week you will make a promptresponse to the problem by re-installing the internet Callto action

If not, then I will consider further action towards having a moneyrefund for the installation fee __ Outcome depending onresponse

I look forward to your quick response via phone ___ Timeframefor action

Meta-discourse –Emphatics are apparent in the first sentence“I am highly disappointed” and “highly unsatisfactory” in thesecond sentence, logical connectives “despite” in the firstsentence.

Reference phrasing – Policy and interaction are apparent inthe letter through the second sentence “Your company claims toprovide the best internet installation, yet the installationperformed in my house is highly unsatisfactory”.

Discussion of emphasis – the letter uses simple sentencesbecause communication is direct and calls for immediate action.

Paragraph cohesion – the letter achieves cohesion by linkingsentences through repetition of ideas employed in precedingsentences.

The letters differ in their reason for writing, where the firstletter is persuasive whereas the second letter expressesdisappointment. The hierarchical argumentative in the first letterbegins with the reason for writing, while the second letter directlyarticulates the problem. Reference phrasing for the first letter isan event, but in the second letter, it is a policy and interaction.

Task 2: Professional Position

Thomas Rodgers,

310 3rd Avenue,

New York, NY 10010.

(212)443-1400.

[email protected]

January 10, 2015.

The Ideal Times Newspaper,

Human Resource Manager,

305 Main Street,

New York, NY 2110.

Dear Sir,

RE: EMPLOYMENT APPLICATION FOR THE POSITION OF IT ASSISTANT

I would like to work as an Information Technology assistant in yourorganization as advertised in the company website. I have a Degree inComputer Science from New York University.

I am aware that the success of an organization depends on acompetent, experienced and skilled workforce. My educationalbackground has afforded me technical skills in InformationTechnology.

I have previously worked as an IT intern and assistant. I amself-assured that given the chance I will work towards meeting thevision and mission of the organization.

I look forward to hear from you. Kindly find attached my resume.

Sincerely,

Thomas Rodgers.

Thomas Rodgers

310 3rd Avenue New York, NY 10010

[email protected]

(212)443-1400

Objective:

Detail-oriented and computer savvy individual seeks to obtainemployment in the field of Information Technology where commitment toproviding superb customer service would assist in office productivityand the achievement of company goals.

Education:

New York University

New York, NY

B.S in Computer Science

Expected January 2015

Current GPA – 3.44

Kingsborough Community College

New York, NJ

A.S. in Computer Science

Graduation GPA – 3.1

January 2013

Summary of Skills:

Technical Skills: Languages: C++, Ruby, CSS, HTML, PHP, SQL, JS

Platforms: Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Linux

Software: Adobe Creative Suite, Microsoft Office, Drupal

Quick learner and self-starter with excellent analytical skills

Capable of excelling in a high volume goal-oriented environment

Bilingual: Fluent in Spanish

Good listening skills enabling the correct interpretation of customer concerns and the creation of appropriate solutions

Work effectively within a team

Professional Experience:

IT Intern 6/2014 to 8/2014

AT&ampT Austin, TX

  • Used HTML, CSS, and JS with the AngularJS framework to work on develop of an internal mobile application used to increase efficiency and inventory tracking

  • Worked on 3 modules of the application development, testing, debugging, and deployment

  • Researched and prototyped a continuous delivery system

  • Created automated functional test suites using Selenium 2.0

  • Decreased server deployment time through automated deployment and archiving scripts

IT Assistant 9/2013 to Current

NYU New York, NY

▪ Providesoftware support for students and faculty

▪ Create and improve web pages on the NYU networkusing HTML, CSS, PHP, XML, and Drupal

▪ Assistwith system transition from Sitestudio to Drupal, ensuring that pagesand PHP scripts are functioning properly

▪ Managesoftware available on the downloads page and their respective keys

▪ Createand test software packages using virtual machines

References available on request

Rhetorical Situation – the writer is applying for a positionthey are competent, in terms of both education and experience. Thereason is to convince the employer to give them the opportunity towork in the company. The genre is a letter and resume to theemployer. The audience is the employer. The topic is employmentapplication.

Highest-level arrangement – the letter involves the insideaddress, date, outside address, greeting, subject, body andsignature. The resume begins with a name, email address and location.It comprises of an objective, skills summary, education and concludeswith the professional experience.

Hierarchical argumentative

Letter

I would like to work as an Information Technology assistant in yourorganization as advertised in the company website ___ Reasonfor writing

I have a Degree in Computer Science from New York University Reassuring credentials

I am aware that the success of an organization depends on acompetent, experienced and skilled workforce. My educationalbackground has afforded me technical skills in Information Technology both sentences act as evidence to support the call foraction

I have previously worked as an IT intern and assistant ___calling attention to important evidence of neededcompetence

I am self-assured that given the chance I will work towards meetingthe vision and mission of the organization Claim ofsufficiency

I look forward to hear from you _ Specific request

Kindly find attached my resume _ Specific request

Resume

Personal details ___ Introduce the writer to the audience

Objectives _ Inform on the intention for writing

Education ___ Highlight degree and level of education

Summary of skills _ Inform on competencies

Professional Experience _ Highlights skills matching the job

Meta – discourse – the letter comprises emphatics “Iwould like to”, “I am aware” and “I am self-assured”. Thereis an attitude marker in the objective section of the resume“detail-oriented”.

Reference phrasing – “I am aware that the success of anorganization depends on a competent, experienced and skilledworkforce” the applicant is interacting with the employer, usingthe word depends as the verb choice.

Discussion of emphasis – simple sentences are used in theletter and resume because they are meant to be straightforward inaddressing the employment application.

Paragraph cohesion – the letter links the sentences byexplaining ideas from previous sentences. The resume uses subheadings to ensure coherence and unity of the entire resume.

Task 2: Peripheral Position

Thomas Rodgers,

310 3rd Avenue,

New York, NY 10010.

(212) 443-1400.

[email protected]

January 10, 2015.

The Ideal Bank,

Human Resource Manager,

305 Main Street,

New York, NY 2110.

Dear Sir,

RE: EMPLOYMENT APPLICATION FOR AS A BANK TELLER

Please consider my application for the position of a bank teller asadvertised in the Daily Newspaper. I have a degree in computerscience.

I have previously worked as an IT intern and IT assistant. My workexperience has afforded me skills in communication, customer service,listening skills and technical skills.

I aim to work for a company that will offer growth and improvement ofmy work experience, making me an all-rounded employee and I believeThe Ideal Bank offers such an opening where it becomes possible towork within an environment where I get to meet and interact withdifferent people and professionals.

I look forward to hear from you. Kindly find attached my resume.

Sincerely,

Thomas Rodgers.

Thomas Rodgers

310 3rd Avenue New York, NY 10010

[email protected]

(212)443-1400

Objective:

Detail-oriented and computer savvy individual seeks to obtainemployment in the field of Information Technology where commitment toproviding superb customer service would assist in office productivityand the achievement of company goals.

Professional Experience:

IT Intern 6/2014 to 8/2014

AT&ampT Austin, TX

  • Used HTML, CSS, and JS with the AngularJS framework to work on develop of an internal mobile application used to increase efficiency and inventory tracking

  • Worked on 3 modules of the application development, testing, debugging, and deployment

  • Researched and prototyped a continuous delivery system

  • Created automated functional test suites using Selenium 2.0

  • Decreased server deployment time through automated deployment and archiving scripts

IT Assistant 9/2013 to Current

NYU New York, NY

▪ Providesoftware support for students and faculty

▪ Create and improve web pages on the NYU networkusing HTML, CSS, PHP, XML, and Drupal

▪ Assistwith system transition from Sitestudio to Drupal, ensuring that pagesand PHP scripts are functioning properly

▪ Managesoftware available on the downloads page and their respective keys

▪ Createand test software packages using virtual machines

Summary of Skills:

Technical Skills: Languages: C++, Ruby, CSS, HTML, PHP, SQL, JS

Platforms: Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Linux

Software: Adobe Creative Suite, Microsoft Office, Drupal

Quick learner and self-starter with excellent analytical skills

Capable of excelling in a high volume goal-oriented environment

Bilingual: Fluent in Spanish

Good listening skills enabling the correct interpretation of customer concerns and the creation of appropriate solutions

Work effectively within a team

Education:

New York University

New York, NY

B.S in Computer Science

Expected January 2015

Current GPA – 3.44

Kingsborough Community College

New York, NJ

A.S. in Computer Science

Graduation GPA – 3.1

January 2013

References available on request

Rhetorical Situation – the writer is applying for a positionwhere they lack the educational requirement, but have possiblematching work experience. The reason is to convince the employer togive them the opportunity, probably as an entry-level position toventure into a different career path from the one studied in school.The genre is a letter and resume to the employer. The audience is theemployer. The topic is employment application.

Highest-level arrangement – the letter involves the insideaddress, date, outside address, greeting, subject, body andsignature. The resume begins with a name, email address and location.It comprises of an objective, professional experience, skills summaryand education.

Hierarchical argumentative

Letter

Please consider my application for the position of a bank teller asadvertised in the Daily Newspaper __ Reason for writing

I have a degree in computer science __ Claim of education

I have previously worked as an IT intern and IT assistant _Highlighting skills to increase employability

My work experience has afforded me skills in communication, customerservice, listening skills and technical skills _ Reassuringthat the applicant has skills matching the job

I aim to work for a company that will offer growth and improvement ofmy work experience, making me an all-rounded employee __ Callfor attention to reason for application

I believe The Ideal Bank offers such an opening where it becomespossible to work within an environment where I get to meet andinteract with different people and professionals’ __ reassuringthat the applicant is interested in the job.

I look forward to hear from you __ Call for action

Kindly find attached my resume __ Call for action

Resume

Personal details ___ Introduce the writer to the audience

Objectives _ Inform on the intention for writing

Professional Experience _ highlights the applicants workexperience

Summary of skills _ Inform on competencies

Education ___ Highlight degree and level of education

Meta – discourse – the letter comprises emphatics “Pleaseconsider”, “I aim to”. There is an attitude marker in theobjective section of the resume “detail-oriented”.

Reference phrasing – “I have previously worked as an ITintern and IT assistant” the applicant demonstrating an event tothe employer using the verb choice work.

Discussion of emphasis – simple sentences are used in theletter and resume because they are meant to be straightforward inaddressing the employment application.

Paragraph cohesion – the letter links the sentences byexplaining ideas from previous sentences. The resume uses subheadings to ensure coherence and unity of the entire resume.

The difference between the first and second application is mainlyhighlighted by the hierarchical organization. The first applicationinsists on the educational qualification whereas the secondemphasizes more on professional qualification. The professionalexperience appears first in the second application’s resume,followed by skills and education. The first application begins withthe education, skills and professional experience.

Task 4: Email to Instructor

Email:

Book Review

I think the book Disciplinary Discourses: Social Interactions inAcademic Writing by Hyland (2004) is an important resource in forclass. The book’s chapters inform on different issues, whichinvolve text interaction, the importance of citations, and how tocomplete research articles among others. The language isuncomplicated and easy to comprehend. I think the book has been agood selection for this class. In specific, the section on academicattribution has improved my writing and citing when completingresearch papers. However, despite the simple language, it isdifficult to comprehend some of the context included in the book, forinstance, in explaining the association amid the academic world anddifferent ideologies. Generally, the book is a good read.

Rhetorical situation – the review is a direct communication to theinstructor. The purpose of writing is to inform about a book used inclass. The reason also involves providing feedback on theeffectiveness of the book as a class text. The genre is a book reviewand the audience is the instructor. The arrangement involvesintroducing the book, its themes and personal view on the book.

Hierarchical argumentative

I think the book Disciplinary Discourses: Social Interactions inAcademic Writing by Hyland (2004) is an important resource in forclass __ reason for writing.

The book’s chapters inform on different issues, which involve textinteraction, the importance of citations, and how to completeresearch articles among others __ claim on why the book isimportant.

The language is uncomplicated and easy to comprehend __ furthertext analysis.

I think the book has been a good selection for this class _analysis on the book.

In specific, the section on academic attribution has improved mywriting and citing when completing research papers reassuringassertion why the book has been important. However, despite thesimple language, it is difficult to comprehend some of the contextincluded in the book, for instance, in explaining the associationamid the academic world and different ideologies ___ book critic.

Generally, the book is a good read ___ concluding remark.

Paragraph cohesion is achieved through repetition of the key word,which is “book”, which makes it clear that the writing is a bookreview. The writer uses simple sentences, as it is a directcommunication with the instructor.

Task 4: Second Review

Disciplinary Discourses: Social Interactions in Academic Writingby Hyland, K. (2004)

The author has done a perfect job in demonstrating how cultures linkto academic societies. The book targets students and teachers.Students use the book in enhancing their understanding of culturalwriting, to improve on important writing aspects, and learn how tocite. Teachers use the book as an instruction aid to explain aspectsthat are difficult to comprehend without illustration. For instance,an instructor can simply tell students that they need to cite theirwork, but through the chapter on citation, the instructor explainswhy, how and when to reference other people’s work. Much of thebook’s content focuses on issues that have been taught, but not ona cultural focus.

Using discourse analysis, voices of expert insiders, as well ascorpus linguistics, Hyland evaluates how academics employ language inarranging their careers, conduct intellectual roles and agree on whatbecomes knowhow in the initial chapters. The subsequent chaptersinvolve a relevant presentation of the context for comprehending theassociations amid writers and readers in publicized academic work.From the context, Hyland avails practical instruction guidelines andnotes chances for prospect study in the subject area. As matters oflinguistic, as well as rhetorical expression of disciplinaryprinciples become more relevant to instructors, learners andresearchers, the articulate evaluation and direct method used inwriting the books makes it a reading resource valuable. Generally, itis a good academic book, which provides the basis for students tounderstand social interactions during academic writing.

Rhetorical situation – the write targets a large audience henceused a general writing style. The reason for writing is to inform onwhy the book is recommended for students and as a teaching aid. Thearrangement begins by introducing the author’s reason for writing,the target audience for the book, what the chapters entail, how thebook can be used and concludes with an general view of the book.

Hierarchical argumentative: The author has done a perfect job indemonstrating how cultures link to academic society’s thetheme of the book.

The book targets students and teachers. Students use the book inenhancing their understanding of cultural writing, to improve onimportant writing aspects, and learn how to cite. Teachers use thebook as an instruction aid to explain aspects that are difficult tocomprehend without illustration. For instance, an instructor cansimply tell students that they need to cite their work, but throughthe chapter on citation, the instructor explains why, how and when toreference other people’s work __ the paragraph explains thetarget audience and how they use the information provided in thebook.

Much of the book’s content focuses on issues that have been taught,but not on a cultural focus further focus analysis.

Using discourse analysis, voices of expert insiders, as well ascorpus linguistics, Hyland evaluates how academics employ language inarranging their careers, conduct intellectual roles and agree on whatbecomes knowhow in the initial chapters. The subsequent chaptersinvolve a relevant presentation of the context for comprehending theassociations amid writers and readers in publicized academic work__ introduction to issues covered in the chapters.

From the context, Hyland avails practical instruction guidelines andnotes chances for prospect study in the subject area. As matters oflinguistic, as well as rhetorical expression of disciplinaryprinciples become more relevant to instructors, learners andresearchers, the articulate evaluation and direct method used inwriting the books makes it a reading resource valuable ___ theparagraph further analyses the intention of the author in writing thebook.

Generally, it is a good academic book, which provides the basis forstudents to understand social interactions during academic writing__ concluding remarks.

The disparity amid the first and second review is apparent in thehierarchical argumentative. The first review is straightforwardfocusing on the theme and relevance, while the second review accessesthe theme, target audience and chapter analysis.

References

Hyland, K. (2004).&nbspDisciplinarydiscourses: Social interaction in academic writing.Ann Arbor: TheUniversity of Michigan Press.

Kuhn, T. S.(1996).&nbspThestructure of scientific revolutions.Chicago, IL: The University of ChicagoPress.

Penrose, A. M., &amp Katz, S. B.(2010).&nbspWritingin the sciences: Exploring conventions of scientificdiscourse. New York: Pearson Longman.

Swales, J. (1990).&nbspGenreanalysis: English in academic and research settings.Cambridge: CambridgeUniversityPress.