Social, Behavioral, and Psychological Causes of Diseases

SOCIAL, BEHAVIORAL, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL CAUSES OF DISEASES 7

Social,Behavioral,and Psychological Causes of Diseases

Social,Behavioral,and Psychological Causes of Diseases

Amajority of patients diagnosed with diabetes have Type 2 diabetes,and it is still one of the conditions perceived to be the milder form(Ali, Stone, Peters, Davies &ampKhunti, 2006). While this could betrue, managing the condition is a huge challenge for patients. TheUnited States and the rest of the world is constantly grappling withother associated symptoms of Type 2 diabetes, which make managing ita complicated exercise for patients band doctors as well. Examples ofthe complications which are notable for patients with Type 2 diabetesinclude, eye problems, problems with the nervous system, and theeffects the disease has on the kidney. There is a great risk of Type2 diabetes patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases, and areduction in the patient’s life expectancy by an average of morethan seven years. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes varies acrossdifferent racial and ethnic groups, as well in groups of similargenetic and cultural background who are living in differentenvironments. In the US, Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is more common in theAfrican-American, Hispanic, and Asian populations than innon-Hispanic whites. Native Americans have the greatest rates of T2Dwith its prevalence as a high as 50% of the adult population in somegroups. While these rates of diabetes can be explained in part bygenetic predispositions, environmental factors are also fundamentallycrucial in finding lasting medical solutions to Type 2 diabetes.

Itis worthy of note that, the proportion of undiagnosed diabetes isabout 50% in most studies conducted in either developed or developingregions. For example, it is about 40% in the United States. 54-60% inIndian, 61% in China, and reached 80% in some African countries(Mavian, Miller &amp Henry, 2010). Therefore, there is a need toorganize screening programs to detect undiagnosed type 2 diabetes inorder to provide early treatment to reduce the symptomaticcomplications.

Generally,Type 2 diabetes has the following rate of prevalence in the UnitedStates: 2.6% of the cases are people between 20 and 44 years of old,11.7% are people between 45 and 64 years old, and 18.9% are peopleabove 65 years old. By race and ethnicity, adults aged 20 and abovehave the following rates of prevalence: 16.1% are American Indian andAlaska native 8.4 % are Asian America, 11.8% are Hispanic, 12.6% arenon-Hispanic black, and 7.1% are Non-Hispanic white. The state ofDelaware has a lower prevalence rate the national rate at 5.5%(Legro, Kunselman, Dodson &ampDunaif, 2009).

Waysto address Type 2 Diabetes

Thereare different ways that the people can manage Type 2 Diabetes. Thedisease has different ways approaches that doctors recommend topatients on how to manage the disease. There are three six ways thatare doctors can possibly propose for potential patients and diagnosedpatients in all different workplace environments. Some of theseproposals are:

  1. Patients should have a health diary

Allpatients and persons that have potential reasons to have Type 2Diabetes and those have already been diagnosed with the diseaseshould a basis for a healthy diary, which they can share with theirdoctor or diabetes care provider. The most important informationtheir health diary should contain in the pattern of their bloodsugar’s peaks and valleys. Dates and times of these peaks andvalleys may be important clues for establishing their pattern. Theirmeal plan, exercise routine, and medication regimen should betailored to anticipate these peaks and valleys. They may need toincorporate a snack to prevent a low, or go for twenty-minute walkafter dinner to prevent a high. Since there are a variety of factorsthat can affect blood sugar levels, their diary should record thefollowing items:

    1. Any medication they are taking

    2. Unusually high or low readings that fall outside their pattern

    3. Stressful life events or situations

    4. Illness

    5. Out-of-the-ordinary happenings (no matter how insignificant)

    6. Changes in their health insurance or status

    7. Severe insulin reactions (if they are taking insulin)

    8. General medical history (for example, surgeries, tests they have had, allergies, past drug reactions).

  1. Patients should be taught to prevent high blood sugar

Thisshould happen in the scope of understanding the common reasons for achange in blood sugar levels. Normally, they revolve around thefollowing: (1) Overreacting or eating more than usual (2) a change inthe exercise routine (3)missing a medication dose or an insulin shot(if patients are taking insulin). (3) An out-of-the-ordinary-eventsuch as illness, stress, upset, or excitement. (4) A sudden moodchange such as extreme fright, anger, or sadness and (6) pregnancy.

Inresponse to unusual strains or stress, an individual’s body tapsinto its stored glucose supplies for extra energy. This raises theirblood sugar level as more glucose than normal is released into theirsystem. Whether they are fighting off flu or fighting with theirmother, digesting all the food they ate at that all-they-can-eatbuffet, or running away from a black bear, their body needs to getthrough their immediate crisis. In any workplace, it is important tounderstand that people’s blood sugar naturally rises when they areill. In the vent of a clod, fever, flu, or injury, they need toadjust their routine to accommodate high blood sugar levels,especially if vomiting or diarrhoea is occurring. In some cases, theymay need to have insulin temporarily. When a person is ill and theyhave T2D, it is crucial that they see a doctor.

  1. Patients and all persons at the workplace should be taught about when and how to request a Glycosylated Haemoglobin Test

Thismost important test checks a person’s glycosylated haemoglobinlevels (the glucose attached to the protein in the red blood cells).It is called the haemoglobin A l c test or the HbA l c test (Vergès,Brun,Tawil, Alexandre&ampKerlan, 2012). Haemoglobin is a largemolecule that carries oxygen to the bloodstream. When the glucose inone’s blood comes into contact with the haemoglobin molecule, itconveniently sticks to it. The more glucose stuck to the haemoglobin,the higher the blood sugar. All persons at any workplace environmentshould, therefore, make an effort of having this test because ithelps in ascertain the blood sugar level caused by this mechanism.

  1. People at the workplace should learn to prevent low blood sugar

Whenany person at the workplace is diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes,whether their treatment revolves around lifestyle, oral hypoglycaemicdrugs, or insulin therapy, they may experience an episode of lowblood sugar. The workplace environment should, therefore, supportworkers to plan their meals around their activity so that theyprevent episodes of low blood sugar.

  1. A workplace environment should support workers to acquire a Glucose Meter and Test their Blood sugar

Alldiabetes experts agree that the most important way to begin tocontrol blood sugar is to have a glucose meter and test blood sugarabout three or four times a day. For newly diagnosed workers,frequent daily testing will show them the patterns glucoses rises anddips. The information will help health care professionals to tailorthe patient’s meal plans, exercise routines, and medicationregimens.

  1. Workers should have knowledge about normal versus high blood sugar

Beingknowledgeable symptoms of both high as well as low blood sugar iscrucial when a patient is trying to manage Type 2 diabetes (Kostev&ampMergenthaler, 2011). All of the following are symptoms high bloodsugar: Weight gain, blurred vision, and drowsiness of extremefatigue, frequent infections that are slow to heal, tingling ordumbness in the hands and feet, and gum disease. A workplaceenvironment that has manuals that inform patients about thesesymptoms will help them seek early interventions.

Recommendation: Proposal six is the best in a workplace environment because itenables workers to use their predispositions to go for early testsfor type 2 diabetes. Workers who are at risk of increased risk ofdeveloping type 2 diabetes should be identified and screened forimpaired glucose metabolism (prediabetes) or features of themetabolic syndrome. Of the recommended measures the workplace canadopt this measure in at least 2 to 3 years. High-risk individualscan provide their personal or family history to help the managementon designing their work leaves so that they can seek physicalexamination, and routine laboratory tests.

References

Ali,S., Stone, M. A., Peters, J. L., Davies, M. J., &ampKhunti, K.(2006). The prevalence of co‐morbiddepression in adults with Type 2 diabetes: a systematic review andmeta‐analysis.DiabeticMedicine,23(11), 1165-1173.

Kostev,K., &amp Mergenthaler, U. (2011, September).Time to insulininitiation, glucose control and occurrence of diabetes relatedcomplications in France, Germany and UK from 2005 to 2010.InDiabetologia(Vol. 54, pp. S159-S160). 233 SPRING ST, NEW YORK, NY 10013 USA:SPRINGER.

Mavian,A. A., Miller, S., &amp Henry, R. R. (2010). ManagingType 2 Diabetes.Postgraduate medicine,122(3).

Legro,R. S., Kunselman, A. R., Dodson, W. C., &ampDunaif, A. (2009).Prevalence and Predictors of Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus andImpaired Glucose Tolerance in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: AProspective, Controlled Study in 254 Affected Women 1. Thejournal of clinical endocrinology &amp metabolism,84(1), 165-169.

Vergès,B., Brun, J. M., Tawil, C., Alexandre, B., &ampKerlan, V. (2012).Strategies for insulin initiation: insights from the French LIGHTobservational study. Diabetes/metabolismresearch and reviews,28(1), 97-105.