Research Essay


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Theuse of vaccines in the developing world is marred with a lot ofcontroversy, with some people objecting immunizations andvaccinations aimed at controlling the spread of diseases. Mistrust ofvaccines has become a common phenomenon, which is precipitated bysuspicions in the third world nations that are not based on anyfacts. The emergence of anti-vaccines groups in third world nationshave made people to question whether it is safe to continue usingvaccines. While developing vaccines, scientists aim at achieving anumber of goals. One of the major goals of scientists is to weakenthe virus to make them have poor reproduction while in the humanbody. Weakening the virus helps the body develop a strong immunesystem that can resist the impacts of a disease causing organism.After conducting research, scientists communicate their findings,which are used as the basis for addressing the causes of diseases(Nelson &amp Jones-Nelson, 2012).

UNICEFidentifies the main killers of children in the third world nations asmalaria, measles, pneumonia, HIV/AIDS, as well as diarrhea. Inaddition, malnutrition has been found to be a leading killer ofchildren in third world nations that are affected by issues such asdrought. The death of the children mostly emanates from the fact thatthey do not have access to immunization. Since the status of healthfacilities in the third world countries is poor, it becomeschallenging for children to access health services where they can beimmunized to control the spread of diseases. As a result, theirimmune system becomes weak and they are unable to withstand theoutbreak of a contagious disease. Children vulnerability and theirinability to fight diseases in the developing nations is also causedby malnutrition and unhygienic living conditions, which make itchallenging for their immune systems to overcome a diseases outbreak(Nelson &amp Jones-Nelson, 2012).

Overthe past few years, vaccination in the developing world hasconcentrated on the use of HPV vaccine, which helps to address theproblem of cancer. However, the availability of such vaccines to thepublic is challenging since they are considered expensive yetmajority of the population in the third world nations cannot affordto pay for the medical facilities. Lack of cancer immunization hashad a huge impact on women suffering from cervical cancer, most ofwhom die since they are not immunized against the HPV virus. Womenmortality as a result of cervical cancer is highest in the thirdworld nations than in any other part of the world.

Non-scientistsalso have interests in the development of vaccines this includes thepeople who benefit from the vaccine, as well as other agenciesdealing with healthcare issues. The interest of non-scientists is toensure that a contagious diseases does not spread in the humanpopulation. This is based on the understanding that the spread ofcontagious diseases within the human population is sometimesuncontrollable, and can have detrimental effects on the health andwell-being of a community. The use of vaccination is not devoid ofdebates on ethical issues ethical conduct is regarded as a crucialconsideration before introducing vaccines in a community. There aresome religious beliefs and morals that object the use of vaccinesbased on the argument that it contravenes the liberty and autonomy ofhuman beings. Ethical issues also arise regarding whether it isacceptable to give participants that are regarded as control groupsthese vaccines (Isaacs et al, 2009).

Compulsoryimmunization has led to numerous debates on the issue of vaccination.Certain cultural beliefs, especially in the developing nations,hinder the access to vaccination. As a result, some parents do notimmunize their children since they fear that the vaccines containdisease causing pathogens. Ethical debates have emerged on whethersuch parents should be prosecuted for failing to adhere to the law.The other ethical issue when it comes to immunization is thepossibility that fairness will be applied in the access toimmunization. In the third world countries, healthcare budgets tendto constrain the government, and this makes it unable to providehealth services to all members of a population. Opponents ofimmunization have argued that it should not be applied in nationswhere the state does not have the capacity to provide the service toall citizens. This is because vaccinating few people and leaving outothers cannot eliminate an illness.

Thereconciliation of the competing set of conflicts is based on assuringthe religious community that the vaccines being used to controldiseases are safe and have been thoroughly tested (Plotkin et al,2008). In addition, compulsory immunization should be applied incases whereby the failure to vaccinate a child puts their life atrisk. The conflicts can also be solved through ensuring that there isproper prioritization and allocation of resources to the healthcaresector. This ensures that there is no limited access to healthfacilities, and as a result, every citizen will benefit fromimmunization programs introduced by the government.


Isaacs,D., Kilham, H., Leask, J. and Tobin, B. (2009). Ethical issues inimmunisation. Vaccine27(5),615-618.

Nelson,K. E., &amp Jones-Nelson, B. (2012). Genomicsapplications for the developing world.New York: Springer.

Plotkin,S. A., Orenstein, W. A., &amp Offit, P. A. (2008). Vaccines.Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders/Elsevier.