Racism and Discrimination in the American Society (Literature Review)

Racismand Discrimination in the American Society (Literature Review)

Racismand Discrimination in the American Society (Literature Review)

Broman,Mavaddat, &amp Hsu (2000racism and discrimination is stillentrenched in the American society to the extent that it negativelyimpacts the lives of victims as it did during and the before thecivil rights era. Through their psycho-social model, they identifythe black community as the minority that has faced the most impact ofracial discrimination and entrenched prejudiced. Although Latinos andother minority groups face the same psycho-social effects, theirresearch pays greater attention to the Africa-community than thelater. According they discussed in this journal, they identify racismand its associated discriminatory tactics as one of the prominentcontributors of stress in contemporary America. The insights in thejournal do not strictly pay attention to inter-racial effects ofracism but also intra-racial effects among the black community. Thus,there is no doubt that racism is still a global challenge. It hassimply has taken a new twist because perpetrators use covert methodsthat may not place them on the unaccepted side of the law. Theyconclude that contemporary America has to face racism in the same wayit did in the civil rights era except that the policies shouldaddress the covert tactics that are present the corporate, housing,and residential segments where it most entrenched.

Clark,Anderson, Clark, &amp Williams (1999) explain racism anddiscrimination is barked with the actual activities that happen inAmerica. Incidents such as workplaces prejudice in awardingpromotions and other institutional issues such as residentialstructures where racial groups live according to race in relation toclass differences. The provide perfect examples in the United Stateswhere black people can reside but most of them cannot choose to doso because of dreading to be targets of negative portrayal from themajority race (white Americans). They also discuss stress thatemanates from being a victim of racism as well as racialdiscrimination in the contemporary sense. Thus, it is important tonote from these findings that African-Americans face this kind oflife hence, being subject to psycho-social forces which affect thetype of life they live due to of associated distress. hese two earlysources are concurrent in every respect because they bring out racismand discrimination as one of the most notable stressors of theAfrican-American. In fact, Clark, Anderson, &amp Williams stressthat it is the most reported among counselors and victims of otherpsycho-social forces that stress most members of the Africancommunity that seek psychological help.

Ifstress associated with racism is existent in America, then there wasneed for research that explains how minorities are able to cope withthe same challenges using different techniques approved by theAmerican Psychological Association. Utsey,Ponterotto, Reynolds, &amp Cancelli (2000), through the journal ofcounseling and development make it clear on this aspect. They providea comprehensive overview of different ways in which men and women ofcolor try to cope with psychological stress and trauma that comeswith being victims of racism and its associated discrimination. Theyalso cite the findings of other literature material on the same tosupport their findings. Through the Rosenbergself-esteem scale, the index of Race-related Stress, and theSatisfaction with Life Scale, they found out that women havedifferent ways of coping from men. They use these techniques to showthat many Americans are only struggling and grappling with everydayexperiences of racism and discrimination. They also identified lossof self-esteem as a consistent report that most counselors give aftertheir clients who are victims of the racism and discrimination seekhelp through therapeutic counseling. In identifying the copingstrategies it, therefore, proves that indeed racism exists and somany of minorities face discrimination in their daily lives. Theabove techniques are widely recognized by professional psychologicaltesters of different aspects that are likely to be exhibited bypersons by people who victims of racism and discrimination. In fact,the article reveals varied stress-related problems that are commonamong the minorities as a result of many encounters with racism anddiscrimination. They include high-blood pressure, stroke,hypertension, and cardiovascular complications.

Inthe same version, Sue et al. (2007) through their article on theAmerican psychology periodical brought up a different concept:microagressions. According to these authors, microagressions arethose commonplace actions that people intentionally andunintentionally do in real life that adversely constitute racism orracial discrimination. This was an incredible way of supporting thissubject because they actually brought up an idea that forms the coreof what many people from the minorities go through. Thus, one canactually link the entire problem of contemporary racism with theirassociated microagressions that these authors talk about. Accordingto Sue et al, all actions fall at some level of taxonomy of actionsthey came up with in that article. Understanding the actions enablescounselors to identify the taxonomic group it falls beforerecommending relevant remedies.


Broman,C. L., Mavaddat, R., &amp Hsu, S. Y. (2000). The experience andconsequences of perceived racial discrimination: A study of AfricanAmericans. Journalof Black Psychology,26(2),165-180.

Clark,R., Anderson, N. B., Clark, V. R., &amp Williams, D. R. (1999).Racism as a stressor for African Americans: A biopsychosocial model.Americanpsychologist,54(10),805.

Sue,D. W., Capodilupo, C. M., Torino, G. C., Bucceri, J. M., Holder, A.,Nadal, K. L., &amp Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial microaggressions ineveryday life: implications for clinical practice. Americanpsychologist,62(4),271.

Utsey,S. O., Ponterotto, J. G., Reynolds, A. L., &amp Cancelli, A. A.(2000). Racial discrimination, coping, life satisfaction, andself‐esteemamong African Americans. Journalof Counseling &amp Development,78(1),72-80.

Arrow,K. J. (1998). What has economics to say about racial discrimination?.TheJournal of Economic Perspectives,91-100.