Personalattributes, the input of the trainer, the output of the learner, andfeedback determine the level of the learner’s motivation to learn(Noe, 2010). The motivation to learn refers to the trainees desire toacquire knowledge about the contents of the training program. Themotivation to learn also depends on the environment of the trainingduring training. For instance, the contents of the training unitscould be comprehensible but the learner may find it difficult tomaster due to their negative attitude towards them. Conversely, adifficult concept can be so easy to master if the learner gains moreinterests to learn about them during the training session. Theattitude could emanate from the fact the learner does not find thetraining program important in their career development. They could aswell be attending the training session because they are obliged toso. The learner should also have an environment that encourages themto learn more.

Question2: CompetencyModel

Amodern organization needs a competency model to check on thecapabilities of the employees in whatever they assigned to do insideand outside the organization (p.130). A competency is an area of inwhich an employee has high personal capability that enables them toaccomplish the best in their areas of performance at the workplace.Competencies vary from one employee to another. They range fromknowledge, skills, values, individual attitudes, personal attributes,and talents. A competency model, therefore, singles out thesecompetencies from employees so that the organization can align themwith each job.

Acompetency model is related to job analysis. A job analysis entailsdeveloping a description for a specific job and qualifications itrequires for a prospective employee to earn a place in theorganization. They are related because the former outlines theaspects of work to be accomplished in the organization while thelater states the objectives to be accomplished and the specificstrategies to do so.

Theprocess of developing a competency model

Theprocess of developing a competency model takes fives vital steps thatenables organizations to identify employee capabilities. The stepsare:

  1. The organization should conduct a business and strategy analysis

  2. Identify jobs, positions, or job families

  3. Carry out interviews as well as focus groups having top performers

  4. Develop competencies and a competency model for the organization.

  5. Validate and evaluate the developed model to ascertain its effectiveness for the organization.

Everyorganization can develop its own unique competency model that fitsits human resource objectives. For instance, organizations that needemployees with technical skills could have a competency model thatfocuses on capabilities on those skills. Organizations in the serviceindustry such as banking and hospitality have a different competencymodel from those in the manufacturing sector such as motor companies.

Question3: Training

Atraining manager must weigh the option of whether to hire a trainingconsultant or have an in-house training program based on theadvantages that each will have on the organization. If theorganization has to adopt training from a vendor, the trainingmanager has the responsibility to source for vendors or consultantswho will provide high-quality services to employees. Vendors andconsultants range from individual professionals to those fromreputable institutions that provide the same services. Theorganization will identify qualified consultants through requests forproposals. This is a very important factors because it directlydetermines the quality of services the consultants are competent toprovide and eliminates the need evaluate each of the vendors.Secondly, the process of identifying the preferred vendor is tediousif the organization were to use an in-house program. Using aconsultant provides an opportunity for the training manager toascertain some critical aspects which are critical to the quality oftraining employees should receive from the training program. Thesefactors are: the type of service(s) the company needs for employees(2) the type and number of references (3) the number of employeesthe consultants can accommodate (4) the amount the consulting firmor vendor charges per session the evaluation criteria in order tocome up with the level of satisfaction from learners (5) theduration of completion and (6) the date of submitting proposals tothe organization.

Ifthe training manager decides to use a vendor, they have to ascertainthe vendor’s competency through contacting prior clients andprofessional organizations for guidance. For example, the AmericanSociety for Training and Development is one of the best institutionsto advice the training manager about the relevant competencies thatan individual vendor should have. Among the factors to consider arethe experience of the consultant, the specific services offered,materials, and fees as outlined the consulting contract.

Question4: Methodsused in Needs Assessment

Thereare different methods used in needs assessment (p.107). They include:use of questionnaires, interviews, use of focus groups, documentationusing technical manuals and records, observation, and using onlinetechnology. Through observation, an employee can learn about theneeds of employees. However, observing does not show the innerfeelings or thoughts of employee concerning certain aspect of theworkplace. Questionnaires provide a platform for the employer to askemployees specific questions that can enable the organization to meetneeds. Questionnaires are also less detailed. Thus, face-to-faceinterviews through groups can be a source of vital of vitalinformation from employees on what they consider a priority in theirneeds. Interviews can take the form of focus groups or they cantarget individual employees as well. An example of a needsassessment exercise is when an organization has so many employeesthat face-to-face interviews might be time consuming. These willrequire questionnaires that will focus on common needs that affect amajority of employees or focus groups that assess employees in eachproduction or functional unit of the organization. The ideal way thatsuch a huge of number of employees should be assessed is through asample reflecting the diversity of the organization’s employees.


Noe,R. A. (2010). Employeetraining and development.(5th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.