Thepossible explanation the author is likely to give for English as theglobal language for business is that a global language isparticularly appreciated by the international academic and businesscommunities (Sonntag, 2003). The international community isconstantly moving towards establishing a single lingual Franca bothin lecture rooms and board rooms. Furthermore, thousands ofindividual contracts are made daily and they need a common language.It is unlikely to change because even China, which is the currentglobal economy, has an increasing number of people learning to beproficient in English.
Theauthor’s possible explanation for terming Italian as theinternational language of music could possibly be based on thehistory of Italian opera that spread outside the Italian peninsulabecause of the widespread emigration of Italian singers, musicians,composers, and librettists (Ammer, Ammer, & Facts on File, Inc.,2004). They spread first in Vienna, the capital of multilingualHapsburg Empire, which included a good portion of northern Italy.Italian was widely spoken and understood in Vienna and with theestablishment of an Italian opera Italian musicians and singers cameover the Alps in numbers to look for work. Afterward, the Italianopera-or, in any event, opera in Italian-spread to otherAustro-Hungarian centers, to the various German states, andeventually to Spain and Portugal, Russia, England, and even the NewWorld.
OnFrench as the international language of diplomacy, the author couldexplain the assertion based on the traditional strength of French asthe diplomatic language (the former lingua Franca) (Bolewski, 2007).French is linked to educational and cultural prestige attached to itby 63 partner states of the Francophonie (49 member states, 4associated states, and other 10 observer states) and to the role ofthe French diplomacy. Its linguistic role generates a positive Frenchidentity, promotes French as a language of international mediation,and accepts a more polycentric approach to French-speaking culture.
Theroles of the above three languages as asserted by the author maychange with the growth of other world powers like china which areincreasingly spreading their language on the international stage.
Legalimmigrants originate from all countries that the United Statesrecognizes by law and practice. American immigrants come from allcountries in Asia, Europe, South America, and Africa that haveconsulates and embassies. They come through successful diversity visaapplications, educational scholarship awards, and other legal meansthat can enable them gain access into the United States. Immigrantshave extreme educational levels. A majority have low educationallevels while others have the highest professional qualifications interms such as doctorates. In fact, this explains why they have beeninstrumental in filling the labor gap left by Native Americans. Amajority of Native Americans have college degrees therefore avoidoccupations in the construction and engineering industry. Legalimmigrants take up professional occupations and they settle indifferent states in depending on where they are assigned after theirsuccessful application. Immigrants are represented in both extremesof educational qualifications. Thus, they settle in states that havethe most opportunities for them. Unlike illegal immigrants they arespread across all states with a most settling in western states suchas Nevada and California. Texas, Tennessee, and Alabama also have aconsiderable number of legal immigrants. Every state has its owncontribution to the total number of legal immigrants depending on itsdesirability.
Theimmigration and Naturalization Act of 1990 (the immigration Act) wasone of the most comprehensive overhaul of employment-relatedimmigration law since legal controls were passed in the 1900s. Itsets out a complex system of quotas and preferences for determiningwho will be allowed to permanently live as well as work in the UnitedStates. It covers all employers and all employees hired sinceNovember 6, 1986, except employees who provide occasional, irregulardomestic services in private homes. Independent contractors are notcovered in the Act. Under the Act, it is illegal for the employer to(O`Leary, 2014):
Hire or recruit a worker who the employer has not been granted permission by the U.S. Citizenship and immigration Services (USCIS) to be employed in the United States.
Hire any worker who has not completed the INS form1-9, the Employment Eligibility Verification Form, proving the worker’s identity and legal right to work in the United States.
Continue to employ an unauthorized worker.
Employersmay continue to employ workers who were on t5heir payrolls beforeNovember 6, 1986-regardless of their immigration status-as long asthose workers continue in essentially the same jobs they had beforethe law went into force.
TheRights of Undocumented Immigrants
Undocumentedimmigrants have some rights a prescribed by the U.S. Constitution.These are the constitutional provisions that entail human rights.Some states have laws that grant undocumented immigrants some rights.The rights are in the 5thand 14thamendments,which protect those rights of all persons (Haines & Rosenblum,2009). If someone sues them, they have the right to receive a noticeand organize their legal defense. Law enforcers cannot seize theirproperty without showing and proving that they are authorized to sothrough a probable cause. They also have the right to use those whodiscriminate against them by seeking litigation in federal courts.
Thearticle shows a lot of positive contributions that undocumentedimmigrants have on the American economy. From filling up the deficiton the extremes of the labor market to bolstering the net growth inthe economy, there should be a concerted effort from the executiveand the legislature to enact progressive legislation on the same. Thediscourse on immigration is not new. Both legal and illegalimmigration and the methods of dealing with the later have been inplace for long. Considering that immigrants have a huge contributionto the growth as well as prosperity of the US, legislation shouldfocus on making it easier for potential immigrants to legally becomeU.S. citizens. This does not mean the background checks should becompromised, but the system should make it unnecessary for foreignersto take the illegal route into the United States. Sometimesimmigrants are called ‘aliens’ simply because they were born inanother country. Legal immigrants and illegal immigrants contributealmost in the same magnitude to the wee-being of the United States.The U.S. Department of State expects prospective immigrants to applyfor visa-a stamp placed in the individual’s passport-at theAmerican embassy or consulate in their home country. A visa does notguarantee the person entry into the United States. It simply means anofficial has determined and approved their eligibility. The processis complex and lengthy prompting many prospective immigrants to lookfor shortcuts. Thus easing the process of visa application and thecertainty of gaining entry can safeguard the gains the entire countryhas reaped over time from the contributions of illegal immigrants. Asthe article indicates, the dependence on migrants workers will notstop any time soon since it is cyclical. Legislation should,therefore, take care of this challenge.
Ammer,C., Ammer, C., & Facts on File, Inc. (2004). TheFacts on File dictionary of music.New York: Facts on File.
Bolewski,W. (2007). Diplomacyand international law in globalized relations.Berlin: Springer.
Haines,D. W., & Rosenblum, K. E. (2009). Illegalimmigration in America: A reference handbook.Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.
O`Leary,A. (2014). UndocumentedImmigrants in the United States.Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.
Sonntag,S. K. (2003). Thelocal politics of global English: Case studies in linguisticglobalization.Lanham [u.a.: Lexington Books.