Question1: Racial disparities and inequities in health care: Class,any thought, ideal, and insight?
Althoughindividual Americans may have racism feelings towards a certain groupof people like the blacks, Hispanics or any other group in the UnitedStates, racism would not have flourished were it not fordiscrimination of people of color that institutions have over theyears perpetuated. For example, the slavery system kept black peoplein bondage for several generations. In addition, other institutionsincluding the church and the justice system helped in maintainingslavery and discrimination. In medicine, racism has resulted tounethical studies about people of color and to the substandardtreatment given to such people until today. Various groups ofminorities including the blacks, Latinos, Hispanics, South Asians andArabs usually find themselves racially discriminated for differentreasons (Shaverset al., 2012).In medicine, the U.S government had allowed studies that permittedpoor black men to succumb to syphilis in Alabama. In addition, blackinmates, mental health patients and soldiers in Guatemalan prison tobe afflicted with syphilis among other sexually transmittedinfections. Also black women were sterilized in North Carolinathrough the support of the government.
Question2: In what societal institutions can institutional racism be found?
Institutionalracism refers to societal patterns that have an overall effect ofcompelling oppressive or negative conditions against particulargroups on grounds of race or ethnicity. Although the law is clear onthe treatment of individuals, some institutions exercisediscrimination against their clients on the basis of theirethnicities (Phillips,2011).Although institutional racism is profound in most institutions it isvery evident in the criminal justice system, in health care, inschools, churches to mention a few. In the criminal justice system,the blacks are harassed more often by the police, stopped, searchedand incarcerated than any other group. This is due to the generalbelief that young black men are more likely to engage in crime thantheir white counterparts (Phillips,2011).Without eliminating institutional racism in the country, it may proofdifficult to eradicate racial profiling in the United States.
Question3: Why are questions raised about affirmative action althoughinequality persists?
Therehas been continued controversy in affirmative action as inequalitycontinues to persist. Civil rights actions have been taken throughouthistory and even in the law to see that people are not discriminatedagainst their social, economic, gender, religious or even sexualorientation. However, the policies that are made are a temporalsolution to the larger problem. Institutions aggressively hire,promote or offer educational opportunities for minorities or womenjust to meet a numerical target, but not because they are focused onpromoting equality per se.
Programsor quotas that are established to promote affirmative action haveachieved a lot though. In the last three decades, women and the blackminority have increasingly participated in the workforce. Theproportion of blacks in managerial positions has risen fivefoldduring the same period. In the 1970’s for example, women made upabout 5 percent of layers as compared to 20 percent today (Andre,Velasquez and Mazur, n.d). Regardless, serious inequalities areevident. Majority of senior executives in the corporate in the UnitedStates are predominantly white. As civil rights groups increasepressure and aggressive preferential treatment programs to reduceinequalities, opposition to this strategies increase. Some opponentsargue that some of the programs are aimed to discriminate againstmales of white ethnicity. Others believe that, preferential treatmentlead to stigmatization and victimization of minorities, resulting toconflict among different groups. Largely, affirmative action isoppressive on white males in that, they are discriminated in aneffort to correct past injustices against minorities, which isunfair. As such, instead of promoting equality, it may lead toinequality in the reverse manner. For example in the past years, theUniversity of Berkeley comprised of 80 percent of whites, but todayit is only 45 percent (Andre, Velasquez and Mazur, n.d). The majorityof the U.S population is white and such actions may be shunninginnocent people from opportunities.
Question4: In what respects are ethnic and religious diversity in the UnitedStates related to eachother?
Historically,the churches supported the institution of slavery which resulted tothe churches apologizing to Americans for their position during thetimes of Jim Crow laws. For example mainstream churches like theCatholic and other protestant churches have in the 21stcentury apologized for their involvement in perpetuating racism. TheSouthern Baptist Convention openly supported slavery and in 1995 alsosupported racial segregation (Hutchinson,2013).Some churches were known to discriminate against some minority groupsand preferring certain ethnicities over others. In theirappointments, some churches in the United States have maintainedracial segregation. To recover from the bad stereotyping, churcheshave of late resorted to embracing diversity in their congregationand fighting racism altogether (Hutchinson,2013).Appointments have also been made to represent people of minoritygroups in the church. For example, the United Methodist Church soughtto promoting social justice as a way to reject racism that haddomineered in the church for years (Hutchinson,2013).Unfortunately, there are still churches that have continued in racialdiscrimination against people of color by not allowing interracialcouples or even worshippers of color.
Andre,C. Velasquez, M. and Mazur, T. (n.d). AffirmativeAction: Twenty-five Years of Controversy.Santa Clara University. Retrievedhttp://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v5n2/affirmative.html(Accessed December 22, 2014).
Hutchinson,S. (2013). GodlessAmericana: race and religious rebels.Los Angeles, Calif: Infidel Books.
Phillips,C. (2011). Institutional racism and ethnic inequalities: an expandedmultilevel framework. Journalof social policy,40(01),173-192.
Shavers,V. L., Fagan, P., Jones, D., Klein, W. M., Boyington, J., Moten, C.,& Rorie, E. (2012). The state of research on racial/ethnicdiscrimination in the receipt of health care. Americanjournal of public health,102(5),953-966.