Question 1



Fullspectrum diversity or comprehensive diversity can be described as anencompassing approach that entails the inclusion of individuals fromdifferent racial, ethnic and religious groups in the workforce. Thishelps to enhance diverse experiences as well as expertise since eachindividual is recognized and accepted as unique. Organizations with adiverse workforce are capable of producing a greater variety ofproposals and ideas. Thus, managers today promote the full spectrumof diversity, to keep their businesses running and competitive.

Onthe contrary, affirmative action is law-driven program designed topromote equal employment opportunities, eliminate discrimination andenhance fair treatment of all employees. The desired result ofaffirmative action is to change demographics and eliminate employmentbarriers of minority groups in a firm such as women. Additionally,affirmative action is also aimed at achieving accountability ofmanagers and supervisors to make sure that all employees have equalopportunity in the process of hiring, training, promotions and alsoin awards programs. However, affirmative action helps in achievingmore diversity in an organization. For that reason, both affirmativeaction and diversity go hand-in-hand to reinforce gains of having adiverse workforce and effectively management of diversity(Doverspike, Taylor &amp Arthur, 2006).


Criticsof affirmative action argue that it may lead to some issues that include, management making decisions that are only based on sex andrace. It is argued that affirmative action contravene on the basicrule of sharing out opportunities based on merit. Thus, the programusually compels managers to overlook other highly qualifiedindividual in favor of the minority group. As a result, this mayamplify stigmatization of the minority group who other employeesbelieve that they did not earn their success. Our company is dealingwith this issue by implementing a complementary program toaffirmative action that include testing program where individualsfrom different gender and races are carefully matched to apply forthe same jobs. Therefore, a model based on individual rather thangroup traits like color or race is utilized. Affirmative programshave been well executed to provide equal opportunities to minoritywhile the non-minorities are not excluded (Doverspike, Taylor &ampArthur, 2006).

Secondly,opponent of affirmative action argue that the non-beneficiaries ofthis policy may become hostile, angered and also resist this programsince it only benefits certain people and other qualified individualsmay not be employed. This company deals with this issue by having anestablished methods and process that careful examines all hiringdecisions and focused on providing opportunities for all individuals.


2.1how culture construct group identity

Culturalbackground is a significant influence that shapes group identity. Toascertain whether a group identity is shaped by culture, thenconstitutes and characteristics of identity should be well-understoodfirst. Culture is shared beliefs, norms and behaviors. Since humanbeings are social, then belief and behavior are socially acquiredfrom the society they live in. for this reason, people learn tobecome themselves by observing others, imitating their behaviors,trying new patterns of actions and following those they feelpressured to emulate. Furthermore, research show that social supportas well as a sense of belonging heavily impact on the mental andphysical health. The relationship between cultural integration andhealth/mental remain strong all through an individual’s lifetime. Agroup’s identity is also shaped by history where beliefs and valuesare inherited from a generation to the next. .Finally, culture andgroup identity is not static and individuals are prone to theadaptations of new cultures through interaction.

2.2social concept of race

Accordingto scholars, race is socially constructed using physical traits suchas skin, hair colors and eyes. These visible markers end up becomingreal, thus forming the basis for categorizing people into differentraces. As a result, a racial hierarchy is created and subsequentlyfollowed by unequal distribution of privileges and power.

2.3behavioral and thinking patterns and diversity issues

Adiverse workforce is emerging as a business necessity in today’scompetitive environment. Varying behavioral and thinking patternsadds value to the company since this impacts on how each individualcomplete the assigned tasks. How each employee behaves will foster acollaborative work culture that enable employees to contribute totheir full potential (Mishra, Sarkar &amp Singh, 2012).


Healthdisparities are differences in opportunities to receive optimalhealth services. The main causes for these disparities in the racialminorities include the role of poverty. Socioeconomic status has ahuge influence on insurance as well as access to mental services inareas where the poverty level is high. In addition, the economicposition determines whether African Americans and other racialminorities will afford health care as well as proper nutrition.Alternatively, other barriers that prevent the minority population toaccess the available health care services for proper treatmentinclude fear of treatment as well as mistrust. The racial and ethnicminorities have different cultural ideas concerning illness andhealth and this stop them from seeking the appropriate services.Health disparities remain a persistent problem despite the improvedoverall health. However, awareness of this unacceptable socialinjustice has grown, and thus, in order to prevent pronouncedconsequences, equity and consistency is required since health caredisparities are costly and may result in significant morbidity anddisability. Therefore, it is significant that all barriers toreceiving healthcare are addressed and this included the cost ofservice, discrimination as well as the fragmented organization of theservices.


Doverspike,D., Taylor, M. A., &amp Arthur, W. (2006). Psychologicalperspective on affirmative action.New York: Novinka Books.

Mishra,R. K., Sarkar, S., &amp Singh, P. (2012). Today`sHR for a sustainable tomorrow.New Delhi: Allied Publishers.