POLITICAL NEWS MEDIA 6
Thepolitical news media are an integral part of the U.S democraticprocess. It is because almost every American citizen accesses thenews from the media rather from other sources. The media performdifferent functions in the political arena that is found helpful tothe democratic process. It acts as an intermediary between the peopleand government, reports on the trending news as well as activelyinvolving the citizens in politics and social issues (Hallin &Mancini 2011). The media are an independent watchdog that ensures thewhole voting process is conducted in a fair manner in order to makeinformed decisions. The primary role of the media in the politicalarena is reporting news because democracy requires the public to beprovided with adequate information.
Thereis a difference in how news is reported in countries across theglobe. Research shows that news reported from one source has similarsets of norms and practice, but it is perceived differently incountries with varying political environments (Hallin & Mancini2011). However, there are factors that push these news media towardsachieving similar practices. They include professional consensus,same political environments and directing story towards the sameaudience. Hallin and Mancini identified three models of media systemdevelopment that tries to explain the media role in politics and theforces behind them. They also reveal the relationship between themedia and politics. They include The Anglo-American, EuropeanReporting or Polarized Mediterranean and Democratic Corporatist(Hallin & Mancini 2011).
TheAnglo-American model is popular because it is an original versionthat the Polarized Mediterranean has adopted the practice and style.It has been using the old ways of reporting news thus considered as aregressive approach (Hallin & Mancini 2011). The two methodsdiffer from the other in the ways they relate to politics,interpretation and literary writing. Hallin and Mancini describeAnglo-American as a prototype that argues for the importance tobroadcasting news in a neutral and objective manner. It providesequal opportunities for those with differing political views as wellas circulating their newsprint to all. The Anglo-American stereotypehas numerous features that differentiate it from other models. Thefirst feature is that it is independent and does not have politicalpowers. It also performs the control function over political forces(Hallin & Mancini 2011). In addition, it demonstratesprofessional standards that promote independence of journalism, aswell as objectivity. The model has been adopted in many countriesbecause they view it as influential and a standard for measuringjournalistic behaviors.
TheEuropean model is commonly used in countries such as Spain and Francebecause they believe that it is simple when reporting. Hallin andMancini say that the style and mode of reporting are shaped by thepolitics, community and culture where the profession is exercise(Hallin & Mancini 2011). They also argue that although theAnglo-American model considers this prototype as old-fashioned andregressive, it has some distinguishing characteristics. The firstfeature is that it has a close relationship with politics that isfound significant. The link between journalists and political partiesenables them to benefit financially. They are guaranteed of jobsecurity by politicians and at times, they are involved in activepolitics. Hallin and Mancini say that politicians use them to gainpopularity as well as communicating their agendas. The policies ofthose countries that have adopted the model are sophisticated becausethe journalists are not given room to express their views. They aredirected at what to say forcing them to take the political situation(Hallin & Mancini 2011).
Thereare numerous reasons that made the Anglo-American model independentfrom the politics and government. First it was due to slow economicdevelopment because the country and the economy were trying to expandand grow, but the government did not provide enough to spur thegrowth. There were restrictive monetary policies. Hallin says thatthere was also a lack of consumer confidence in the economy (Hallin &Mancini 2011). The market forces in the United States fostered growthof the industrial capitalism, and the media were able to generatemore income through advertisements.
Further,Mancini demonstrates that the sovereignty of the media encouragedthem to increase advertising and this earned enough to sustain them.The Anglo- American model was now guided by norms of neutrality andobjectivity that saw its contents and news reach more across theglobe. The economy of the European countries was also slow, but theforces of demand and supply were not sufficient to foster growth(Hallin & Mancini 2011). Mancini said that the European media wasunwilling to increase their advertising in order to generate morerevenue. The only available option was to rely on political partiesand government for their funding.
Thethird model is the Democratic Corporatist. It resulted due to theexistence of the commercial press and press that had a link withpolitical parties thus limiting its roles. Democratic Corporatistappears in different types such as the liberal in Germany and socialtype in Denmark (Hallin & Mancini 2011). Mancini said that due tothe coexistence, their democracy is compromised because it requirespower sharing. Hallin and Mancini identified numerous characteristicsof this model including a high level of profession. They attributedthe feature to the autonomy of the exercise of journalism. There arealso various political parties that help in solving the problems thatmay occur through negotiation (Hallin & Mancini 2011). The modelhas some similarities with the Anglo-American model on issues such asinformation and commentary-oriented journalism as well as neutralprofessionalism.
TheAnglo-American is the most persuasive model of the political newsmedia. Journalism refers to an activity of gathering, creating andreporting news from all over the world. The primary aim is to provideinformation that will help citizens make informed decisionsconcerning their lives, society and government (Hallin & Mancini2011). The Anglo-American prototype is also referred to as the“Dominant model” because it has a tradition of searching andreporting on the changing issues and events across the globe. Inaddition, the European journalists have been inspired and developedtheir model that was based on the dominant stereotype.
Hallin,D. C., & Mancini, P. (2011). Comparingmedia systems: Three models of media and politics.Cambridge [u.a.: Cambridge Univ. Press.