Physical Disability Number

PhysicalDisability

Number:

PhysicalDisability among children

Disabilityis a common term that is used to refer to different types ofimpairments disability may take different forms such as physical,cognitive, sensory, mental, developmental, and emotional among otherforms of disability. A disability may be present right from the timeof birth or may also be acquired during an individual’s lifetime.Disability among children are somewhat challenging as they lead tospecialized care, and sometimes may call for a specialized school tocater for their needs (Mitchell&amp Snyder, 1997).Education remains one of the most effective ways to eliminatediscrimination against disabled children however, there is challengein providing the education for the disabled children in society. Thispaper looks into physical disability among students as well as peoplein society.

Introductionto disability and definitions

Physicaldisability refers to either total or partial loss of a person’sbodily functions. This usually affects functions such as walking,motor skills as well as partial or total loss of one’s body parts.Examples of physical disabilities among children include amputation,spine bifida, and post polio syndrome, among others. Physicaldisability is mostly associated with lack or difficulty in mobility.Children with movement and mobility impairments find it hard anddifficult to participate in any activity while facing social andphysical barriers. Over the time, there has demand for improvedfacilities to cater for physically challenged children as well asspecial needs for their education programs (Mitchell&amp Snyder, 1997).

Anindividual may have one or multiple physical disability at ne giventime, the best ways used to refer to physically disabled people andespecially children, is those children who have an inability to usethe legs, arms, or their body trunk effectively. This may be due toinjuries, paralysis, stiffness, pain, or other impairments. It may bethe result of birth defects, disease, age, or accidents. Thesedisabilities may change from day to day. They may also contribute toother disabilities such as impaired speech, memory loss, shortstature, and hearing loss. Learners are diagnosed with physicaldisability may somewhat require a series of school services, whichmay be dependent on the level of need and functioning. This explainswhy there is a need for a specialized school to cater for suchstudent needs. A compressive assessment is then essential whenforming programs to cater for such cases (Grenieret al, 2014).

Characteristicsof physical disability among children

Physicaldisability entails a range of disorders, which involvesneuromuscular, orthopedic, pulmonary issues or cardiovascular issues.One of the major characteristics of physical disability among peopleis mobility hindrances. Physical disability in one way or the otherlimits normal mobility a person. This is usually depicted by use ofassistance when working or walking. Another characteristic iscognitive development of the affected people. Physical disabilityamong children and adults may affect cognitive functions. Othercharacteristics include physical deformation, retarded movement andbalance, underdevelopment in physical growth, as well as an averageheight and weight that usually less than normal children of the sameage (PhysicalDisabilities, 2014).

Prevalenceof physical disability

Differentsurveys have been conducted to deduce the number of children andadults affected by disability. The statistics are essential for thenational government planning and implementing measures such asmedical measures to help the affected persons. It also helps tobudget for and financing of special schools to cater for the specialneeds school children. From the statistics conducted in the NHIS, in2010, 7.7% percent of schools going children were affected bydisability. In the United States, of the 53.9 million schools agedchildren between the ages of 5 and 17, 5.2 % were noted to have adisability. A higher number of cases were reported in schools outsidethe metro areas (Carrollet al, 2014).

TheAmerican Community Survey (ACS) is a nationwide survey designed toprovide communities with reliable and timely demographic, social,economic, and housing data. Children in lower social classes or inlimited economic capabilities are affected more in case of physicaldisability. Additionally, the census bureau in the United States hasbeen concerned with 0the prevalence of disabilities among children.This enables to calculate the dependency ratio in the country. According to a recent census in the USA, Morethan 30 million Americans between the ages of 21 and 64 are disabled.Children with physical disabilities as well as other disabilities aremainly marginalized and sometimes may be excluded from education andlater may be excluded from employment (Carrollet al, 2014).

Causesof physical disability

Thereare many and different cases/contributing factors related to thephysical disability both in children and adults. One is that,physical disability is caused through genetic disorders orinheritance, for example muscular dystrophy. Another cause is theconditions during birth (congenital), such as spina bifida, braininjury, spinal cord injury, serious infection/illness t the nerves ormuscles. Other causes include accidents, such as road accidents, andat workplace, congenital condition, infections that may fail to betreated early etc (Meetingthe Needs of Students with Physical Disabilities, 2014).

Psychologicaland behavioral implications

Physicaldisability has tremendous implications for the affected children,parents and the people around the disabled child. It has beenidentified that, disabled people go through two stages which aredenied, and mourning, before they finally adjust to their disability.These stages before the acceptance of the disability condition, has anegative effect to the affected person. One of the major implicationsof disability in individuals is that they undergo stress so they tryto cope with life with limited mobility. From a sociological point ofview, children and even adults who experience physical disabilityundergoes physiological changes as well as behavioral changes(Grenier et al, 2014).

Theyhave to deal with their new state, and in turn coping with crosscultural issues, family, and the costof negative demeanor`s towards people with disabilities as a whole.Physiologically, disabled people undergo through stages such asshock, denial, anger/depression, andfinally, acceptance or adjustment. It’s therefore essential togive, effective psychological intervention, in order to ensureeffective recovery from any injury that may have caused a form ofdisability in concern. Physical disability also calls for behavioralchange, to the affected person. An individual may be confined to awheelchair, for mobility. This hence implies the need for behavioralchange, to the approach to several other aspects in life. Physicaldisability calls for effective behavior change (Mitchell&amp Snyder, 1997).

Educationalinterventions

Physicaldisability isn’t the end of one’s life. However, for the disabledschool going children, there is a need for education interventions tocontinue providing education to the children. There are differentinterventions in place to help the physically challenged schoolchildren. One of the educational intervention measures is the settingup of special school for children with special needs. A building ofspecial schools has been on the forefront to cater for educationneeds for the physically disabled children. Moreover, interventionmeasures have led to the enactment of different styles of teaching,in order to support the physically challenged people in the society(Carroll et al, 2014).

Inaddition to use of specialized schools and facilities, teachers havebeen trained to deal with physically challenged children. Through the‘Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004’.The key objectives of the numerous educational interventions shouldentail aspects such as education of physically disabled studentsmust ensure that they focus on making the best use of learner’sstrengths and in turn facilitate their full development. Moreover,the education should be made accessible as possible and also shouldensure the disabled learners are maximally equipped to support dailyliving, further education and even employment. Finally, theinterventions, are supposed to include IEP, IFSP, placementconsiderations as well as the relevant and necessary modificationsand adaptations (Webb et al, 2011).

Critiqueof website

  1. Meeting the Needs of Students with Physical Disabilities, http://www.nsnet.org/start/physical.pdf

Thiswebsite (article) has been helpful and effective in helpingunderstand what disability, as well as who should be referred to as adisabled person. Characteristics of disabled students, as well as howtechnology can be used to minimize the negative impacts ofdisability. The website has given all what pertains to be deployed inorder to meet the needs of a disabled student. Despite itsinformation on how to help learners with disability, the website hasfailed to highlight the prevalence of the disability cases. Thewebsite provides effective information to anyone looking tounderstand the scope of physical disability.

  1. Physical disabilities’ ‘understanding physical disabilities’. https://www.lds.org/topics/disability/list/physical-disability?lang=eng

Thiswebsite is essential as it helps understand the scope of physicaldisability, its definition, and causes as well as ways to helpphysically disabled learners. Lastly, the article has highlighted thedifferent approach ways to teach disabled learners. It’s animportant link for anyone looking to understand the scope of physicaldisability. However, it doesn’t give an in depth picture of thedisability cases in the community, such as statistics related to thedisabled people in the community. Finally, the website has given aninsight to other forms of disabilities in the society such as mentaldisabilities. The website has been helpful in attaining the relevantinformation about the topic on physical development.

Rolesof the teachers in meeting the educational goals of the student

Theteacher an important role in meeting the educational needs ofdisabled students, one role played by the teacher is that, he/sheacts as the connecting tool between the learner and the learningenvironment. The teacher does this through ensuring a healthy, safeas well an academically effective environment. The teacher also playsthe role of advocate, ensuring that the learner’s needs areprovided in the right manner as per the law requires about thedisabled people. The teacher collaborates with the parents to ensurethat the learner’s goals and objectives are met as it is required.Finally, the teacher acts as the connector between the desirededucation goals and the disabled learners learning program. Thisexplains why special trained leaners are needed to teach in suchschools (Grenier et al, 2014).

Conclusion

Disabilityamong people has been a common aspect of the society, however, theway people deals with disabled people in the society explains how thedisabled people are accepted in the society. As discussed there aredifferent forms of disability. I.e. Mental disability, physicaldisability, among others. The paper discusses physical disability,its causes, characteristics, as well as how to help students affectedby physical disability cases. It’s clear that, disability is bothtraumatizing and challenging and hence should be handled with care.This would help reduce cases of marginalization of affected people.

Summary

Whatis disability?Impairmentsor any condition that is continuing that restricts a person’severyday activities. Typesof disability,these include physical, neurological, sensory, intellectual cognitiveand psychiatric. Causesof physical disability,these include genetically initiated causes, environmental, andaccident. Characteristicsof physical disabilityneuromuscular, orthopedic, pulmonary issues or cardiovascular issuesetc. Prevalence of disability in the United States, Morethan 30 million Americans between the ages of 21 and 64 are disabled.Educational interventions, these are the measures attributed to theeducation sector to help in achieving educational goals to thedisabled learners. Disability has different and varying effects onlearners. These include both psychological and behavioralimplications. Role of the teacher in delivering education goals tothe disabled learners, the teacher acts as the sole primary source ofeducation to the disabled learners and a lot depends on how theteacher manages the physically disabled learners. Theteacher also acts as the connector between the desired educationgoals and the disabled learners learning program

References

PhysicalDisabilities’ ‘understandingphysical disabilities’.Retrieved on 9thDec 2014. From

https://www.lds.org/topics/disability/list/physical-disability?lang=eng

Meetingthe Needs of Students with Physical Disabilities. Retrieved on 8thDec 2014. From

http://www.nsnet.org/start/physical.pdf

Grenier,M. A., Horrell, A., &amp Genovese, B. (2014). Doing Things My Way:Teaching Physical

EducationWith a Disability.&nbspAdaptedPhysical Activity Quarterly,&nbsp31(4),325-342.

Webb,D., Webb, T. T., &amp Fults-McMurtery, R. (2011). Physical Educatorsand School

CounselorsCollaborating to Foster Successful Inclusion of Students withDisabilities.&nbspPhysicalEducator,&nbsp68(3),124-129.

Carroll,D. D., Courtney-Long, E. A., Stevens, A. C., Sloan, M. L., Lullo, C.,Visser, S. N., &amp …

Dorn,J. M. (2014). Vital Signs: Disability and Physical Activity — UnitedStates, 2009-2012.&nbspMMWR:Morbidity &amp Mortality Weekly Report,&nbsp63(18),407-413.

Mitchell,D. T., &amp Snyder, S. L. (1997).&nbspThebody and physical difference: Discourses of

disability.Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.