Phonetics Essay – Analysis of the Patterns in Strong Verbs

PhoneticsEssay – Analysis of the Patterns in Strong Verbs

Theessay focuses on analyzing sounds and sense of the English strongverbs. In carrying out the analysis, at least 50 verbs and categorizethem according to IPA. The paper advances further to analyze thepronunciation from the classifications that have been made.

Bilabial

Labiodental

Dental

Alveolar

Portalveolar

Retroflex

Palatal

Velar

Uvular

Plosive

Peck

Rub

spot

Spoilt, Spilt, bite, hid, burnt, fed, kept, cut, matting, stop, rant, hit, lend, get

Gigging, ragged

Nasal

Hummer

Drink

Bank

Sprinkle

Hanging

Ringing

Mourning

Hear

Hold

Flinging

Trill

Tap or Flap

Fricative

Think, thwart,

thrive

Save, prove

Breathe

Tether

Practice

Raise

Cruise

Possess

Knows

Cede

Shipping

Fishing

Lateral Fricative

Approximant

Judge

Chip

belch

Lateral Approximant

Play

Help

Look

Press

Analysisof Sounds

Theanalysis of the sounds covers each category and the first are theverbs in the plosives and they include peck, rub and spot. Inproducing the sounds, an individual begins by blocking airflow. Inproducing the sounds, three stages or steps are involved. First,there is direct interaction between the active and passivearticulator hence resulting in a complete hindrance of airflow(Brown, 20).

Additionally,the sounds are also produced as a result of air obstructed beingcompressed. Lastly, the trodden air is released in terms ofexplosion. Thus through this, there are six consonants that come upand include bilabial [p] and [b], alveolar [t] and [d], and velar [k]and [g]. Through these consonants we have verbs such as spoilt,spilt, bite, hid, burnt, fed, kept, cut, matting, stop, rant, hit,lend, get,peck,rub, spot and gagged. Rub and spot are produced with both lipspressed together while spilt, spoilt, cut and hit among others areproduced when the tip of the tongue is firmly pressed on the middlesection of the alveolar ridge. The verbs gigging and ragged areuttered when the back of the tongue is on the soft palate.

Verbsounds such as practice, raise, cruise, possess, knows, cede, thinkand thwart are produced via fricative consonants which occur by mereobstruction of airflow but not a complete blockage of air. This meansthat a gap is left between active and passive articulator as the airflows from the oral cavity.

Hummeris a verb that is categorized in the IPA model as bilabial nasal. Thesounds come out through the consonant m. The sound is produced as aresult of lips being kept together hence forming a completeobstruction. In producing the sound, the soft palate is usuallylowered to allow air to pass through nasal cavity leaving the vocalcords vibrating. Approximants are produced through constriction ofthe articulator which is minimal to allow for any friction. Some ofthe verbs that are categorized under the section include help, play,look, and press among others.

Nasalsounds such as drink, bank, hanging, hummer, mourning, and holdproduce different sound (Ladefoged 579). When pronouncing the nasal sounds with n consonants, it isdone by allowing air to move through nasal passage while at the sametime leaving the lips somewhat separated. The tongue touches the toppart of the mouth behind the teeth hence one feels the vibration.

Othersounds like hummer are made through tight press on the lips and atthe same time making sound with the vocal chords. The –ng soundsare made through passing air in the nasal passage though the tongueis placed in different position as compared to that when learning toutter N sound. Further, the tongue is raised and put back in themouth (What 31)

Analysisof Pronunciation

Wordssuch as help, laugh, fish, split with unvoiced sounds like&nbspp,&nbspf,&nbsps,&nbspk,&nbsp,and&nbsp,often the final –ed in its simple past is pronounced like t aspronounced in the word cut (Hartmann23). Usually, the –e is silent(Albright4). When pronouncing the simple past of words such as breathe,hummer, tether and look the final –ed sound is usually pronouncedas d like in the case of a good. However, -e remains silent.

Forverbs ending in d and t the final -ed is pronounced Id as in thefinal two letters of the word did (Wall et al., 43). However, -e isnot silent though the final –ed sound adds another syllable to theend of the verb. Dental fricatives such as breathe or tether are both pronouncedinterdentally with the tongue blade on the lower section of the backof the upper teeth while at the same time having the tip bulging atad. In pronouncing at the beginning, the /th/ is usually voiceless

WorksCited

Albright,Robert W. The international phonetic alphabet: Its backgrounds anddevelopment. 1958.

Brown,Adam. &quotInternational Phonetic Alphabet.&quot The Encyclopediaof Applied Linguistics (2013).

Hartmann,Reinhard Rudolf Karl, and Francis Colin Stork. &quotDictionary oflanguage and linguistics.&quot (1972).

InternationalPhonetic Association, ed. Handbook of the International PhoneticAssociation: A guide to the use of the International PhoneticAlphabet. Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Ladefoged,Peter, and Morris Halle. &quotSome major features of theInternational Phonetic Alphabet.&quot Language (1988): 577-582.

Ladefoged,Peter. &quotThe revised international phonetic alphabet.&quotLanguage (1990): 550-552.

Wall,Joan. International phonetic alphabet for singers: a manual forEnglish and foreign language diction. Caldwell Publishing Company,1989.