Philosophical Positions


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Externalismis a term that has been applied in the work of different philosophersfrom the 19thand 20thcentury including among othersKierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Sartre,whom regardless of philosophical disparities, took externalism as notjust am merely thinking issue, rather as an person acting and hefeels, plus living individual by way of his/her circumstances as astart designed for theoretical thoughts. The works of thesephilosophers have contributed to moral and political theories,offering critiques to different moral values and traces to thehistorical evolution of concepts such as guilt, conscience, andresponsibility, and law and justice. This paper intends to look atthe different philosophical approaches proposed by the threethinkers Kierkegaard,Nietzsche, and Sartre by comparing andcontrasting their work.

Existentialismis a Humanism: the philosophical works of Kierkegaard, Nietzsche andSartre

Accordingto Nietzsche, morality stands for the scheme of faults we take up inour thinking techniques, our emotions, and ways of life. Thus,morality makes up the greatest figure of our insightful lack ofknowledge to whom we are and the environment we are living in. We ashumans’ rank our identities in phony ranks relating to othercreatures or personality, whereby, humans tend to observe themselvesas being higher in superiority than creatures and personalities.However, Nietzsche is of the idea that we are not to victimize ourpersonality for by being accountable due to the faults weincorporated in our system, and neither should we blame our past forthat is happing today. Instead, we should endeavor to be fair inevaluations when it comes to approaches in living make sure we areliving by example as we think past just and unjust. Instead, theprejudice of ethics facilitating within our technique as it presumesof facts it does not entail (Kaufman,1977).

Inline with Jean Paul Sartre, externalism is humanism philosophershave been condemned for emphasizing on that which wicked in relationto humankind, bringing to light the distrustful and dirty (Sartre,2007).At the sometime philosophers are blamed for ignoring the beauty andthe good side of the human nature. In addition, philosophy has beenaccused of overlooking the solidarity held by humanity, and insteadtaking into account man to be a lonely creature. This challengessocial thinkers since philosophers will base their doctrines on puresubjectivity, just when humans understood there segregation, causingphilosophy unable to reestablish cohesion among persons existingexterior of their personality and cannot access these doctrinesthrough the cogito.

Kierkegaard,onthe other hand, he has been held up as the heroic advocate offreedom, equality, and advocates for individuals, and human rights,campaigning against all forces of oppression. Other philosophers havebeen blamed to be representatives of oppressive forces, whereby theyhave been held responsible for the abuse of both extremes of thepolitical spectrum. However, Kierkegaard and Nietzsche are amongpioneering thinkers to be examined as primary of the existentialist,and it is not even clear if they would have been in support of theexistentialism in the 20thcentury. Instead the two philosophers laid interests on individualskills, overlooking truths is fields of science or mathematics,assuming these fields are disconnected and could not give them thehuman experience they quested (Bretall,1973).

Kierkegaardand Nietzsche shared similarities in interests in that they both werefascinated by individual’s quite struggles through what was viewedto be the obvious insignificance of existence, and application ofdiversions as a means to escape from boredom. In addition thephilosophers shared joined interest in the fields of postmodernism,the fields of nihilism, and an assortment of filaments in the fieldof psychology (Kaufman,1977).

Jean-PaulSartre on his part took up the phrase existentialism for his ownphilosophies back in the 1940s. Jean-Paul Sartre did this becausephilosophers were faced by scrutinizes from such groups as Christianswho claimed they philosophers denied the reality of and validity ofhuman enterprises, in such away as we chose to ignore thecommandments of God, thus he entered the discourse externalism is ahumanism. This was to face the accusations that philosophy stressesthe dark side of human life. According to Jean-Paul Sartreexistentialist have been associated with ugly things such use ofvulgar languages and expressions, as results people call theexistentialists naturalists (Sartre,2007).

Thethree philosophers are however in agreement in the way theexistentialist term is put to use especially in the 20thcentury. As noted earlier Kierkegaard and Nietzsche would dispute theapplication of the term existentialist, so is Sartre who explain mostof the people using the term do not even understand what it means.The popularity of the term is causing people to refer to popularpeople such as musicians and painters as existentialists. Thus,according to these philosophers, the term is meant to be appliedstrictly by specialists and philosophers (Bretall,1973).


Kierkegaard,Nietzsche, and Sartre are world thinkers who helped in the foundingexistentialism. Despite the numerous evolutions in the term’sapplication, these philosophers focused on the human experiences andat some point they are even blamed for focusing on the dark side ofthe human experiences. Despite this the existentialist philosophersshare a focus on the major theme of crisis human existence.


Bretall,R. W. (1973). A&nbspKierkegaardanthology.Princeton,N.J.: Princeton University Press

Kaufman,W. (1977). BasicWritings of Nietzsche.New York: PenguinGroup US.

Sartre,J. P. (2007). Existentialismis a Humanism.Yale University Press.