Outline Abstract 3



Abstract 3

1.0. Introduction 4

1.1. Background to the study 4

1.2. Rationale for the Research 4

1.3. Research objectives 4

1.3.1. General Objective 4

1.3.2. Specific Objectives 5

1.4. Research questions 5

1.5. Scope of the research 5

Literature Review 6

2.0. Introduction to Literature Review 6

2.1. Fashion Industry 6

2.2. Women Fashion 9

2.3. Low Fashion 11

2.4. High Fashion 11

2.5. Cheap and chic fashion 13

2.6. Blending the boundaries between high and low fashion 13

2.7. Postmodernism and Fashion 17

2.8. Cheap Chic and Low Fashion……………………………………………………………20

Reference List 26


Someclothes in the wardrobeare probably worth spending extra coins. However, some are had atbargain, while some can be in either way. Therefore, it is imperativeto note that unless one is dressing up for a very critical meeting,or dressing down for a day out to fish, the outfit at any given timeshould comprise of at least one low item, and one high-end cloth.

Thefashion industry is evolving at a high rate, especially in the lasttwo decades. These dynamics imply the need for the fashion industryto blend the low and high fashion, as well as enhance flexibility intheir designs and quality. The major strategy, to maintain aprofitable position and remain competitive in the fashion industry,is to blend high and low fashion. This article investigates howtoday`s fashion blends low and high fashion.

  1. Introduction
    1. Background

Accordingto researchers, some retailers offer their goods at higher prices,while others offer same designs at reduced prices (Loughran 2009, p.243). Stores with higher price points can appeal to their consumerson a psychological level while stores with lower prices can appeal totheir consumers at price level. However, study metrics reveals thatto achieve higher profitability the fashion industry has madeconsiderable efforts in blending the high and low fashion.

    1. Rationale for the Research

Eachconsumer is special and unique in the fashion industry. However,their needs and preferences are similar, particularly due to theirsimilarity in fashion products and demographics. Therefore, it isnecessary that the retailers understand their customer needs andbehaviour in order to enhance their blending power of both high andlow fashions. This is instrumental in their efforts towards offeringadmirable products to their consumers, a factor that is critical tothe fashion world. Many people are conscious of what they wear andthe public opinion regarding their apparels.

    1. Research objectives
      1. General Objective

Thisresearch investigates how today`s fashion has developed to blend theboundaries of low and high fashion.

      1. Specific Objectives

Beloware specific objectives of the current research:

  • To determines the trends in low fashion

  • To investigates the advances in high fashion/postmodernism fashion

  • To examine the historical and contemporary trends for cheap and chic fashion

  • To find out how today’s fashion has succeeded in blending between high and low products

    1. Research questions
  1. Which are the trends in today’s low fashion industry?

  2. How does the high fashion evolved over the recent past?

  3. How does the contemporary and historical trend occur for cheap and chic fashion?

  4. How does the high and low fashion blend in todays the world?

    1. Scope of the research

Thecurrent research will investigate the fashion industry in general.Thereafter, this will be narrowed down to women wear and relatedtrends. Both the low fashion and high fashion trends in fashion willbe investigated. The research will investigate the trends in cheapand chic fashion. Finally, the blend of high and low fashion will beinvestigated and explained.


    1. Introduction to Literature Review

Thischapter presents the review of research done and documented by otherauthors concerning the fashion industry in various dimensions such aswomen fashion, low fashion, high fashion, cheap and chic fashion, aswell as the blending of low and high fashion.

    1. Fashion Industry

Fashiondescribes the collective identities originating from economic andsocial context, and understood within a specific area throughhistorical lenses and global context of the observer. Fashion andclothing are embodied identity practices that are adoptable,constructed or even performed in order to conform or challenge thesocial norms. Fashion can be perceived in different contexts invarious bodies, art galleries, media spaces or stores (Loughran 2009,p. 245).

Thefashion by a particular group is specific or localized in a certainregion, which in most cases can be through street inspiration orexperimental. The power of fashion shifts within a particular evidentwithin the global context. The ideals of the capitalists are embracedby the developing cultures that are becoming critical players in theindustry. Fashion is highly malleable and is understood differentlyin various countries, and is perpetually evolving to blend betweenthe high and low fashion (Diana 1997, p. 123).

Fromdefinition, fashion is coined from the make or a cut of something,pattern or form that depicts the prevailing shape or mode of a dressimposed appearance to mould or make based on a certain pattern.Fashion depicts a product of cultural and economic environment, andits functions can be a concept, statement or politically driven.Currently, fashion has raised its status and has become a major areaof academic and theoretical debate. We are living in times of rapideconomic and social changes where personal identity is dramaticallyaffected by such shifts. The global production and mass consumptionis pushing the industry towards ‘fast fashion` that have seen thebacklash against ‘slow fashion’ (Diana 1997, p. 124).

Therefore,fashion and trend are the instantaneous ideas shared across theglobal audience where collections are streamlined well before gettingthe collections into the physical retail environment. The fashionmerchandising is continually being reinvented in order to draw in theconsumers as well as compete with competitors and savvy market. Thereis the shift in display methods and retail environment in storespaces. The fashion curation has been developing as a distinctdiscipline that highlights the shifts in contemporary exhibition offashion. Arguably, the retail space is in the forefront in adoptingfashion appearance, with more focus being placed on merchandise(Diana 1997, p. 125).

Fashionindustry represents the multibillion enterprise in the world that isdevoted to business making as well as selling clothes.

Fashionindustry is differentiated with the apparel industry based on thetypes of the clothing. In this case, fashion industry is associatedwith high-end clothes while apparel industry is differentiated formaking ordinary clothes or the mass fashion. By 1970s, boundariesbetween high and low-end fashion were blurred. Fashion is welldescribed as a style of clothing and accessories that are worn at anygiven time by a group of people. However, differences can be seenbetween the expensive designer fashions in high-end places, and themass produced street styles or sportswear that are sold in marketsand malls worldwide. Fashion industry encompasses distribution,manufacturing, retailing and design of apparel. The broader term,fashion industry, refers to the myriad services and industries thatemploy millions of people internationally. This represents apostmodernism product, and prior to the 9thcentury when all clothing was virtually handmade, or made fromtailors and dressmakers. The rise of technologies such as sewingmachines with the rise of capitalism enhanced the development offactory production system as well as the proliferation of outletslike department stores. This saw mass production of clothing thatwere done in standard sizes and sold at fixed prices (Peclers 2008,p. 32).

Despitethe fashion industry first developing in America and Europe, today itcan be considered as a global industry, when clothes can be designedin one country, manufactured elsewhere and sold in other countries.For instance, the fashion company in America sources fabrics fromChina, manufactures the clothes in Vietnam, finishes in Italy andshipped to America for distribution through various global retailoutlets. The fashion industry can, therefore, be considered among thelargest employers in U.S. The industry accounts for a considerablyhigh market share in the world economy. The major levels composingthe fashion industry are raw materials, which are principally fibresand textiles, leather and fur.

Productionof fashion goods for the designers, contractors, manufacturers andretail sales are amongst the major components that propel the fashionindustry to high levels. These levels comprise of interdependent butseparate sectors that are devoted to ensuring that the consumerdemand through production of reasonably affordable prices and highquality. All this conditions enable the people involved operate at aprofit while ensuring high consumer satisfaction (Peclers 2008, p.33).

    1. Women Fashion

Thewomen’s fashion industry accounts for the largest share of all thefashion markets, encompassing activewear, casual wear, outerwear, formal wear and other essentials.Fashion has been the major driver of women wear(Dabb et al. 2008, p. 45).

Theclothing industry have been dominated by womenswear, which representsover two-thirds of total adult wear. This is a reflection of women`saffinity for enjoyment and fashion in the experience of shoppingclothes. About 57 percent of moment has clothing, jewellery and shoesas the main shopping priority, hence becomes the main discretionaryarea to spend. Some young women who are fashion oriented are a majordrawback to the independent living transition that has been theirmain cover from effects that can delay their acquisition of therequired fashion (Dabb et al. 2008, p. 46).

Theinterest of women in following the fashion trends is said to diminishas the women become old. The appeal to comfortable and high-qualityclothing in classic styles has been on the rise. This indicates anopportunity for the retailers to focus on the rapidly expanding andunder-served demographics. The increased pressure of consumers’disposable incomes, many women are currently turning to clothes thatare on special offer or sale. The increased competition rife in thewomen fashion market, the retailers are required to differentiatethemselves from in order to realize huge margins. The retailersshould aim at focusing on enhancing the value to their offers ofretail experience in order to spur their markets forward. Despite theglobal women wear industry suffering from the effects of economicrecession, many changes are being experienced in retailing landscape(Crane 1999, p. 61).

Focusingon women fashion tends to shed some light on behaviours of women incertain situations. For instance, this sheds some light on a range ofopinions in thepostmodernview or aLiberal View. ThePostmodern view believes that remains a dichotomy that derive fromcultural understanding of the true meaning of gender. Therefore, useof women as the unitary category in fashion may tend to give a falseopinion regarding the legitimacy to the culturally specific versionof gender. The adherents to such a view may imply that gender doesnot have a placed within the consumer research and fashion blending.A women’svoice experiencebelieves that there are permanent differences between female and maleexperiences. Therefore, female experience is a major constituent oforganized society. The distinction of gender on the basis of sexualstructures links each aspect in life with changing trends in fashion(Crane 1999, p. 61).

    1. Low Fashion

Thelow fashion is an awful entrance door to the fashion world, wheredespite many people being in the fashion world, very little is knownabout the industry, with peculiar myths centred on the area. Manypeople have worn clothes without counting the context and level ofwhich their fashion falls. Most of the low fashions targets enormoussales. Thepoint isthatlow fashion targets a huge consumer base(Peters 2011, p. 291).

    1. High Fashion

Highfashion refers to the unique, trendsetting and exclusive fashions.Mostly, the mass markets are concerned with products that aremass-produced, typically with materials that are cheaper. On theother hand, the high fashion products are in part defined by theirhigh costs and quality materials. In simple terms, when you visit amall and see more than five people wearing the same taupe pea coatjust like you, it would probably imply that the coat was made veryquickly during the manufacturing process, hence the reduced quality.However, for a custom wedding dress from Vera Wang, or even thevintage finds can be considered under the umbrella of high fashion(Peters 2011, p. 291).

Nevertheless,there has been increased interest to blur these lines. Each daybrings with it a different package from the same make directed at aparticular line of target. For instance, this pink skirt can beexclusively made for you. However, there are other similar skirts onthe rack. According to Tyra Banks, high fashion never reflects theattires of the model. While a person’s instinct might be to standup and smile for a photo, Tyra shows these models that lifting oneleg into the air and gazing directly up front, the resulting photocan be very eye-catching. Similarly, use of the word commercialdismissively, it implies something familiar or safe. Sometimes in thefashion world, high and low fashion can be used synonymously for botheasy and difficult. Is so much related with the environment insteadof the expense or quality (Peters 2011, p. 292).

Itis justifiable to argue that fashion is mostly related with theenvironment more than with the quality and the environment. You canspot a 60 years or so woman in streets wearing pink hair, exposedturquoise bra, full wedding dress and black combat boots. While acaptivating site, most passers-by can look at her as if she was lessconscious of choice. However, given an appropriate setting, thiswoman can be given a renegade, as she pushes the only rightfuldirection forward (Rocamora 2001, p. 123).

Insimple terms, high fashion can be described as most elegant,luxurious, and expensive clothing and accessories gotten from thetopmost fashions and designers. This is coined the term &quothautecouture&quot. Typically, high fashion clothing is custom made,especially for women clothing. Normally,high fashion is designed from expensive and high-quality fabric thatis sewn with great attention to detail. An haute couture garment ismostly made for the customer and is specifically tailored based onthe body stance and measurements of the wearer. Based on the amountof skills, time and money invested in a high fashion garment, theresulting product can be described as having no price tags, meaningthat the budget is irrelevant. Some are made for runaway likeexhibition(Rocamora 2001, p. 124).

    1. Cheap and chic fashion

Cheapand chic fashion refers to the clothing that is relatively affordableand hideous. Well, the fashion style presented would not be “cheap,but chic”. This implies that the fashion looks amazing, of coursefor little money (Skov 1996, p. 129). For instance, trench is aperfect piece for either casual or official wear. This is a greatinspiration.

    1. Blending the boundaries between high and low fashion

Allthese pictures show some trend setting beauties. They share one thingin common have seamlessly blended some reasonably priced clotheswith the luxe high-fashion in order to create killer assembles(Skov 1996, p. 130).These A-listers have flawlessly mixed high and low fashion, and thisprobably indicates a good lesson to learn from them. Therefore, whenpairing lower or mid-priced clothes with investment pieces, there isthe need to ensure a common thread, with no pun intended(Skov 1996, p. 131).

Forinstance, to go monochrome as showed by Nicole Richie, it may benecessary despite run-away worthy, the white body can be paired byaccessories of similar hue like Christian Louboutin shows, SaintLaurent clutch and Tadashi Shoji cape. This makes the H&ampM dresslike it is a couture.The clean lines showed by Taylor Swift reflects how to selecttailored pieces like the trench-style outwear, structured weatherbooties and top handle bag. This might makes determination of thesplurge-worthy item and the budget-friendly picks very complicated.However, Jerome booties are high fashion costing approximately $995while the Asos coat sells at $106 while the Aldo purse cost $50.Onthe other hand, the blending can be achieved by using bling likeBeyoncé where anything sparkling has a special feel and luxe. Whenpaired with actual jewels like bracelets and earrings and a $130Sequim dress, the appearance can be likened to a red carpet regular(Park 2012, p. 29).

Itis said that models can wear all sorts of clothing, especially thosewith negative three waists, snakeskins huts, pink eyebrows, blackblush and floral lipstick. Hardly any person, besides the likes ofLady Gaga, can consider these people an inspiration when it comes tofashion. If any person can walk into the streets wearing suchfashion, then there is the possibility of being arrested formisconduct. Therefore, the big question remains why do people spentso much money to buy crazy clothing that are hardly worn by anysingle person? A simple glance at fashion magazine like Marie Claireand Teen Vogue that capture the attention of many teenagers reflectshow people have overrated high fashion(Park 2012, p. 30).

Ratherthan being obsessed by such over-priced and often crazy clothes, aperson can just purchase clothes worn, not just for a show-off, butfor personal fulfilment and decency. Therefore, it beats logic whysuch fashions are designed for being worn for a very short time by asingle model. For those who are inspired by runaway fashion arebelieved to be mistaken. While finding an inspiration from fashion isgood, it should be realistic. However, those attires worn by modelsare unreasonably expensive and not completely “out there”(Park 2012, p. 32).

Therefore,due to the dynamism in the fashion industry, there is need todemonstrate the fashion for averagely sized girls and fashion thatelderly people can hook up to. Rather than the confusing and sillyclothing, it would be more fulfilling to see the normal assembles.Rather that the rich and celebrities pouring a lot of money in the20-billion dollar industry, there is need to contribute to thefashion world through blending of high and low fashion, as well aspurchasing something whose price is realistic and not crazy(Attwood2005, pp. 392).

Mixingof high-end and low-end design remains the most viable option ofenhancing a stylish look. According to Rebecca Spera, theMirror/Mirror host, most fashionistas have different tastes in theirblending of high and low fashion.Putting together high and low fashion triggers spending in classicpieces. Such a wide range of fashion has made making decisions onwhat to buy become harder. Various things are supposed to beconsidered like brand name, price, quality and the desire. Normally,these qualities are factored down to price and quality that aredirected relatedly to brand name. Price and quality are directlyproportional, a factor that enhances the importance of the choicebetween low and high-end fashion, with each having its pros and cons(Attwood 2005, pp. 393).

Savingmoney is among the most important objectives of people in the worldtoday. The business industry is greatly adapting to these changesthrough introduction of cheaper and affordable products. Some storesare offering branded clothes at discounted prices. Some store buysused clothes at reduced prices and sell them to people, sometimes atlower costs especially to people who are in need(Attwood 2005, pp. 394).

Inhigh-end store, the target customers are the celebrities, where thenormal citizens only dream of having them one day. The high-endfashion is referred as the alpha male in the fashion industry wherebrands like Gucci and Louis Vuitton tend to flourish. Normally, thesetwo brands are the most expensive but have the highest quality,hence, imitated by many. The high-end brands are very expensive, buttheir prices are reasonable. Many male students rock the new Nikes or200-dollar Jordans with Ralph Lauren Polo, and females wear Burberryscarves and Tiffany necklaces, probably using their parents` money.Despite Nike`s shoes not being of the best quality, the endorsementby superstars like Michael Jordan and Lebron James make them spreadand be known worldwide to those who want to be like Mike. Brand nameplays a major role in selling the product

Someother brands like Gucci and Louis Vuitton have had the top notchquality. Their products are made in European countries, with themanufacturing process given great attention to detail. Alongsidequality, the brand name itself is a great contributor to the sales byjust having the name on the product. Study show that people want tobe admired based on their luxury products as they feel better wearingvery expensive fashion (Crane 1999, p. 64).

Fashionis dependent on a certain person and how they consider it. Peoplehave different opinions and styles regarding the best tastes. What aperson likes reflects the taste of that person in the fashion world.Though the fashion is important today, people must remember thatfashion entails a collection of some physical items that should notbe considered as a priority (Crane 1999, p. 65).

Personally,I gave up some gaps to visit some malls in America and have abandonedhigher end-banana Republic with the business casual of what happenedto simple safari T-shirts, as well as J. Crew which was once a sourceof affordable chinos that is currently selling wedding dresses. Theseare fancy and very expensive, especially for the basics. Therefore,if I have to spend over $100 for trendy fashion, I may not requirethe same velvet blazer or the baby alpaca that is worn by eachseventh person I come along in the streets.Amid the jumbo rolls and boxes of swiffers, I prefer imagining tohave uncovered the fashion secret. As the renowned largestdiscounters, some stores stock women apparel that is among thestrongest chain categories. While some fashion stores have longbranded themselves as big box containing a hip quotient, others arereluctant in their move towards playing the discount game of sellingalways at discounted prices (Crane 1999, p. 66).

Manyretailers tend to modify their fashion mix by blending both the lowand high fashion. This requires the employment of diversified skillsand talents from many people, absorbs considerable consumer spendingportion and offers multitudinous product mix. Many countries haveexpansive apparel industry. Most of the high performers in thefashion industry tend to be operationally balanced. This requirescontinuous alignment to the various chains, planners, buyers,suppliers and designers in order to maintain the right balance inmarket opportunities and production capabilities (Park 2012, p. 37).

    1. Postmodernism and Fashion

Thepostmodernism in Fashion has developed over the years, marked by theemergence of designers such as Vivienne Westwood and AlexanderMcQueen among others to demonstrate the key elements. In the past twodecades, the term ‘postmodernism` has constantly been used todemonstrate definitive meanings (Park 2012, p. 39). Literally,postmodernism can be used to refer to after the modernist movement.However, there is more to postmodernism, where the term can be usedin referring to various art forms. According to critical theorists,postmodernism reflects a point of deviation for architecture anddesign.

Postmodernismwas originally used in the reaction to modernism. According toBarnard Malcolm, modernity conceived terms of production whilepostmodernity conceived the consumption. This implies that all artforms are designed with one single purpose of being consumed.Therefore, postmodernism aims at appealing to the wider audience anddescribe the society in which we live in. In this case, postmodernityis globalizing the post-industrial fashion industry(Diana 1997, p. 125).

Therefore,postmodernism can be perceived as an artistic style and an approachfor making things. The mode of design, make and silhouette createdgives the wearer the status quo. According to Andrew Hill, clothingcannot be related with the social hierarchies. For instance, exposingthe female parts during the 19thcentury was regarded as prostitution. However, in today`s the world,this is being used to signify some lifestyles like relaxation or thedesire to appear attractive, especially to the opposite sex. It isnoted that the signifier that has not fixed signified and securemeaning, as well as all the previous rules are unreliable guides tothe post-modern meaning(Diana1997, p. 126).

Thepostmodernism is not able to distinguish the high and low fashion.Rather, some aesthetic art forms are stereotyped as feminine andjudged as being low in class than the masculine fashion. Thepostmodernism has no much rulebook that dictates the status ofdifferent art forms. The postmodernism challenges values in thetraditional cultural societies, particularly the West. Currently,life has been radically different from how it was five or threedecades ago. Postmodernism is a major contributor to the shiftswithin our contemporary society. According to the professor of theLondon College of Fashion Elizabeth Wilson, postmodern andpostmodernism have seeped into a semi-popular language perceived asshort hand for the general and vague zeitgeist(Diana1997, p. 127).

Postmodernismembraces arts of all forms, with fashion being the major one. Fashionembodies the major postmodernism elements, which is evidently seenduring international catwalks of latest and veteran fashiondesigners. Besides the established representatives and designers ofpostmodernism like Comme des Garçons, Hussein Chalayan, VivienneWestwood and Maison Martin Margiela, there are new designers who havetaken advantage of postmodernism for their collections. They are,therefore, constantly looking into the future of fashion by drawingthe experiences from the past (Rocamora 2001, p. 130).

Thereis no more controversy in the fashion world. For instance, seeing amodel catwalk while wearing see-through dress with her knickers on isno more a mystery and does not cause controversy as it would havedone some years back. This does appear provocative or sexual inslightest, where the women bodies are no longer perceived as objectsof desire. This is a clear indication of women empowerment, somefeminists, as noted by Elizabeth Wilson, tend to disagree with thisbelief. She says that many feminists have started exploring meaningsof fashionable dresses and other kinds of attires. Such explorationis going against traditional feminists’ suspicion for fashionabledress (Peters 2011, p. 295).

Mostfeminists are opposed to fashion since they believe it reinforcessexual objectification for women and associates it with conspicuouspositioning and consumption of women as property. This renders womenhelpless, like high heels and the pinched-in waists which impedemovement.

Thereis more behind any unfinished seam and any raw edge than it can beobserved. Every row is weaved in public, with each line being drawnby a designer. Fashion is in itself a component of postmodernismwhere it echoes today`s the world. The art critics deconstructmeaning for each innovation by going into details for the meaning ofthat art (Loughran 2009, p. 247).

Everydetail in poured over and argued by critics who in return writearticles, books and journals regarding the subject. The postmodernismfashion is felt in each aspect of our daily lives, ranging fromeclecticism, parody and deconstruction, fashion designers andpastiche that constantly use new and old, and low and high to createa new look in an effort to create ‘the next big thing`. Today, massmedia are highly accessible and is capable of reaching far and widefor the consumer. It is observed that fashion tends to move a highrate today that it was three decades ago. This is characterized bythe street stores being constantly updated with lines that maintainsthe public demand and moves it towards ‘fast fashion’ (Dabb etal. 2008, p. 50).

2.8.Cheap Chic and Low Fashion

Itgoes without saying that some items in your wardrobe can usually besaid to have been gotten at a bargain while other quite a fortune wasspend in their accusation. As such it has been suggest more oftenthat unless one is going to attend a very important meeting or goingon fish trip, then one should try and have a balance of high item andlow items in their clothes of choice. Nevertheless, a new trend issweeping through the high street, a wave of low fashion and cheapchic. Not so long ago, teenagers that were style conscious would notgo to a bargain clothes shop, however, today all this has changed asbargain shop owners now boast of the bargains they have found.Previously, anybody admitting to have bought clothes in supermarketwould have been inconceivable until recently where you will ask ateenager where there stylish are from, and they just might have beenpicked the very afternoon along with baked beans and cornflakes in adiscount store. Thus, the know-how shopper will pick up a stylish lowfashion new top to wear for the same night for fiver or even lessmaking it practically disposable. A combination of this and theground breaking supply-chain management that facilitates quickproduction has turned clothing retail today into fast fashion.

Takingan example of the UK, in ration to low, cheap, and chic fashion suchcompanies as Tesco, Asda, and Matalan represent in fashion whatBurger King or McDonalds are to the food industry, acting in terms ofmass production no hassle, they are fast, come being quite popular,and they rely on exploitation down the supply chain to keep thingsrunning cheap and fast (Morganand Birtwistle, 2009).Researchers have revealed one in every item bought in the UK undercheap and chic fashion comes from the three stores mentioned above.Most people shopping at these stores will pick a 2 pounds shirt or 3pound pair of jeans and not question how these clothes can be socheap.

Thenew revolution in most European countries’ high street is thatcheap is the new black. In the last ten year or so, women clothinghave fallen in prices by more than a third of their initial cost, andthe market value has been experiencing a boom as it has doubled insize just under five years and attaining over 6 billion pounds insales in a single year as was the case in 2005 (Tabitha, 2014). Thisis a clear indication that the consumers have received the fall inprices positively as they have responded by buying more clothes, andchanging the fashion in which they purchase them. Previously, storesand especially the high street usually would only change theircollection probably twice a year nonetheless, this has changed asthey strive to have something new in the store every month as theystrive to keep up with the rapidly changing trends.

Thistrend witnessed, one marked by fast fashion has its roots in the fastgrowth in the high street low value outlets such as Matalan, and agrowth in the supermarket clothing sector (White, 2014). These storesare renowned for their creepy similarity in items it sells to those Ithe high fashion and designer markets, as they tend to leap offdesigners as they strive to go cheap. Such retailers as Wal-Mart havebeen reported that the cheap prices they offer making decision makingfor fashion shoppers quite easy. In addition, cheap chic has beenmade even more popular by the quick trends to replicate catwalktrends by most of these stores for the mass market in a very shorttime and at cheaper prices. As such trendy fashion can be acquiredcheap at prices making them practically disposable.

Successin low fashion has been because of low cost lines. Take an example ofMs. Padin a commercial fashion designer she utilizes a mix ofintelligence gathering, utilizing fashion instincts, and technologyand she is starting something rather unique in the European fashionmarket: a just in time low cost fashion for chic. For instance, a newtrend of khaki skirts comes up and in just a few days or weeks herstores across the globe will be filled with the khaki skirts. It isthis quick response that enables the designers and store owners tooffer the latest fashion at reasonable yet affordable prices (Joy etal, 2012).

Zaraa Spanish low fashion company takes four to five weeks to come withnew designs of a collection of cheap chic fashion (Rohwedderand Johnson, 2008).The company has a team of commercial sniffers scouting for newfashions while they keep in constant contact with their differentstore managers, as the company is able to spot a new stylish trend beit in new music video and be intelligent to respond rapidly in a justa few weeks. In construct, other retailers require an average of sixmonths to come up with a new collection design and then an additionalthree months to be spend in production of the new trend of fashion.Executives in the fashion industry have been quoted equating fashionto yogurt, claiming fashion does expire the very same way yogurtdoes, thus, being quick in the low cheap fashion helps fashion designcompanies reduce the risk of making mistakes (Myers,2009).

Nevertheless,being extremely quick in the low and cheap fashion industry has itsdown side, that is consumers more than often will complain designs donot last as long as they would like them to last. In addition, mostof the designers will develop quite trendy designs making sure theyare cheap and accessible however, the quality especially of thematerials is not usually that great. Most the designers have taken upto improving their downsides by listening to the customers, inaddition, they take time to review fashion magazines, attend fashionshows, go to restaurants, bars, and clubs that are deminedfashionable collecting information, since the customer does knowbetter of what they really want (Morganand Birtwistle, 2009).

Latherthan flood the markets with single items, low cheap chic fashiondesigners are on a constant update and mixing and matching differentpopular designs. This way no single model of a cheap chic designfashion can be in the market for more than a couple of weeks. Thedesigners understand their customers have the desires to be unique,nobody wants to dress like the other, and thus, they try to keep afresh fashion. As such, stores dealing in low fashion and cheap chicfashion ensure the get weekly deliveries that aid keep their storesseemingly fresh creating a high turnover rate in designs. In turn,the customers are up under some kind of pressure whereby they feelshould lose out on the opportunity to purchase the commodities thenthey will lose the opportunity to own the fashion design (White,2014).

Inorder to sustain the low fashion and cheap and chick fashion, thesuppliers are forced to perfect a just-in-time process of production.Hence, production is marked by efficiency and speed through which thesupply chain is run. Success in efficiency and speed ensures thefashion designers benefit from a speed to market element that is atthe center of the fast fashion trend, allowing the retailers torespond the customers’ demands in real time, by presenting themanufacturer with small orders that allowing short turnaroundduration. Secondly, the lean form of production under low fashionsees to a reduction of cost that may be as a result where customerdemand has been misjudged. In the part of the suppliers, these callsfor them to be more flexible and a bit more responsive to the buyersneed (Morganand Birtwistle, 2009).

Thetrick employed by majority of the low fashion cheap chic fashiondealers is to source their products from the cheapest manufacturesfrom around the globe. In addition, some retailers and especiallysupermarkets will retain a few suppliers and make sure they dominatethem making sure they can control them by imposing buying power thatallow them to impose what conditions they free like (Joyet al, 2012).

Fashionanalysts and stylists offer advice to help individuals stay withinbudgets as they shop for fashionable attires. To start one shouldfirst scan magazines, visit retails that shelf pricey designer looks,and utilize various high end websites where one has the opportunityto examine clothes for style and workmanship. The next step would beto check sources known to have designer copies of the same,considering the fast moving trends in the fashion world one is likelyto find this early in the season. Some of the popular stops for thisfashion trends would be Maxx, M&ampM, and one of the most popularfor chic would be the Spanish Zara that happens to have stores inEurope and the US (White, 2014).

Additionally,stylists advice those going for the low fashion and cheap and chicduring fall, they probably should go soft leather or faux leatherpants that will easily much up with everything, plus sweater with ananimal image or anything with tassel or go for a scarf that wouldpretty much go with everything. Where the budget is limited, one canjust buy one good item, and have cheap skirts and pants forbackgrounds. Athletic looks will present great opportunities forbargains, thus, check out truck pants among the gym clothes andsneakers that

Everytime it is spring or one has the opportunity to dress and havewhatever look one desires, all that is required are basics to pulltogether these looks, and the good thing is one does not have tospend a fortune in do all that. With cheap and chic, one can never golong high fashion as they come at low prices.


Attwood, F. (2005). Fashion and Passion: Marketing Sex to Women. Sexualities 8(4), 392-406.

Crane, D. (1999). Fashion Design and Social Change: Women Designers and Stylistic Innovation. The Journal of American Culture 22(1), pp. 61-68.

Dabb, A., Chris, L., &amp Mike, O. (2008). High Fashion. Edina, MN: Spotlight.

Diana, C. (1997). Postmodernism and the Avant-Garde: Stylistic Change in Fashion Design. Modernism/modernity 4(3), pp. 123-40.

Joy, A., Sherry, J. F., Venkatesh, A., Wang, J., &amp Chan, R. (2012). Fast fashion, sustainability, and the ethical appeal of luxury brands. Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body &amp Culture, 16(3), 273-296.

Loughran, K. (2009). The Idea of Africa in European High Fashion: Global Dialogues: Fashion Theory. The Journal of Dress, Body &amp Culture 13(2), pp. 243-72.

Morgan, L. R., &amp Birtwistle, G. (2009). An investigation of young fashion consumers` disposal habits. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 33(2), 190-198.

Myers, E. (2009). Justice in Fashion: Cheap Chic and the Intellectual Property Equilibrium in the United Kingdom and the United States. AIPLA QJ, 37, 47.

Park, H. (2012). Eco-Fashion Industry Trend and Creative Fashion Design Technic for Zero-Waste. Fashion Business 16(4), pp. 29-45.

Peclers, P. (2008). Mode Femme: Women Fashion. Paris: PeclersParis.

Peters, C. (2011). Self-concept and the Fashion Behavior of Women over 50. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management 15(3), pp. 291-305.

Rocamora, A. (2001). High Fashion and Pop Fashion: The Symbolic Production of Fashion in Le Monde and The Guardian.Fashion Theory. The Journal of Dress, Body &amp Culture 5(2), pp. 123-42.

Rohwedder, C., &amp Johnson, K. (2008). Pace-setting Zara seeks more speed to fight its rising cheap-chic rivals. The Wall Street Journal, 2(20).

Skov, L. (1996). Fashion Trends, Japonisme and Postmodernism: Or `What Is so Japanese about Comme Des Garcons? Theory, Culture &amp Society 13(3), pp. 129-51.

Tabitha, (2014). Cheap but Chic. New York: Wiley.

White, J. (2014). Fall fashion: Chic on the cheap. London: Sage.