Organizational Behavior and Statistical Analysis I Number

OrganizationalBehavior and Statistical Analysis I


OrganizationalBehavior and Statistical Analysis I

Inbrief definition, OrganizationalBehaviorcan be defined as the field of study, which entails investigations onhow organization structures affect the behaviors within any givenorganization. Organizational behavior also includes the study of theorganization culture. In other words, it entails the study of theimpact of different organizational aspects such as individual,groups, as well as structures to human behavior within anorganization. Within the study, organizational behavior entailspsychology, communication, and management and organization sociology.StatisticalAnalysison the other hand, refers to a collection of methods used to processlarge amounts of data and report the overall trends. It involves thecollection and scrutinizing every single data sample in a given setof items from where samples are drawn. In summary, statisticalanalysis is the collection, examination, manipulation, summarization,and interpretation of quantitative data in order to establish theunderlying causes, patterns trends and relationship within any datasample given.

  1. Organizational Behavior Questions

  1. Four disciplines that comprise the discipline of Organizational Behavior

Organizationalbehavior is a dynamic discipline and comprises other different fourdisciplines. In other words, it’s a behavioral science that hasits basis built from the contributions from other disciplines. One ofthe major influential disciplines is psychology, this seeks tomeasure, explain and also change human behaviors. Secondly, there isthe social psychology. This entails the influence of people to oneanother. Moreover, it also involves how to implement change, as wellas how to reduce barriers to change acceptance. Another discipline isthe political science. The contribution of political scientists hasbeen overtime has been overlooked however, their contribution hasbeen significant to the understanding of behaviors in organizations.Finally, there is sociology, and anthropology. The social aspect ofthe people in an organization is very important and hence theimportant role played by sociologist towards the organizationalbehavior. On the other hand, anthropology tries to explain theinfluence of culture and environment which has direct influence toorganization discipline (Griffin&amp Moorhead, 2012).

  1. The Big Five Personality Model and their effectiveness in understanding behavior in organizations

Thebig five personality traits are referred to as the 5 domains ofpersonality, which are basically used to define human personality.These five traits entail Agreeableness,Neuroticism, Openness, Conscientiousness,and&nbspExtraversion.Each of these traits is believed to have an effect in shaping anindividual personality. It’s believed that, people’s personalityhas a direct impact on understanding people’s behavior such asworkers at work place. The five traits, helps break down people’sbehavior, hence enabling companies to understand workplace behaviors.To start, with there is Extraversion,this entails high levels or amounts of expressiveness. It entails thehabit of an individual concerned with achieving gratification fromthe external environment. This trait helps understand the behavior ofemployees in an organization such as the ones who are enthusiastic,assertive talkative as well as those enjoys human interactions.Opennessis used to define individual with traits such as sensitive,attentive, active imaginations, as well as being intellectuallysensitive. This trait helps understand employees who are eager tolearn new things as well as ones who always are attentive.Agreeableness’is the third, which entails traits such as trust, kindness, andaffection among others. This helps understand the behaviors ofemployees who depicts such traits, as kindness, among otherpro-social behaviors’. Conscientiousnesshelps understand employee behaviors’ such as those with goodimpulse control as well as goal directed behaviors’. Neuroticismhelps understand employee behaviors who tend to show traits such asemotional instability, anxiety, sadness, or employees who becomesirritable. The big five traits are in turn very influential indetermining the behaviors of employees in an organization (Nelson&amp Quick, 2012).

  1. Three concepts of organizational justice, how they work together, and the impact equity theory on worker motivation

Organizationjustice is the aspect of how the employee views the issues offairness in workplaces. The three major and influential forms ofjustice in places of work include, distributive justice, whichentails employees’ concerns of the fairest in the essence ofoutcomes. This justice can be enhanced through enacting of fairemployment practices, educating and effective communication to theemployees. The second one is the, procedural justice. This includeshow employees view the aspect of fairness to the process used indeciding outcomes. Finally, there is the interactional justice. Thisentails, how explanations or information is communicated in anorganization. Sensitivity and fair treatment of the employees is alsocovered under this type of justice (Griffin&amp Moorhead, 2012).

Thethree aspects of justice in a workplace go hand in hand in order forthe best outcome in an organization. Fairness and equity is one ofthe central aspects of organizations success, as the impact of anyinjustice can influence employee’s attitudes and behavior as well.The three aspects of jointly explains the aspects such as fair pay,equal opportunities as well as selection procedures of the employees.Equity theory states that employee or individuals are motivated byfairness, and when faced with inequity, they will attempt to adjusttheir input vs. output to regain the desired fairness. Employees feelmotivated when there is a perceived fairness or equity between whatthey brings to the organization (input), and the output they get inreturn from the organizations. Lack of fairness de-motivatesemployees, due to lack of equity between the input and output asdesired (Nelson&amp Quick, 2012).

  1. Impact of diversity on effective communication, steps to overcome communication barriers

Overthe time, business or organization, communication has evolved as theaspects of globalization have crept into organizations. The emergenceof divergent aspects such as workforce, and cultural diversity hasimpacted effective communications in organizations. Differentcultural expressions can have different meaning to other people fromdifferent backgrounds. Language diversity in addition may hindereffective communication within an organization and in turn it’sessential for an organization to ensure the intended message iscorrectly received by the desired recipient (Nelson&amp Quick, 2012).

Asa manager, there are numerous and diverse steps that can help toovercome communication barriers that may hinder effectivecommunication in an organization. The first step is to ensurefeedbacks and upward communications are encouraged this would helpreduce misunderstandings, which is a communication barrier. Alwaysmake clarification of ideas before communicating them, communicatingwith reference to the receiver needs, encourage consultancy beforecommunication. Other points to consider include, always making surethe language, tone and message context are the right ones. Finally,there is making follow-up in communications as well as ensuringmessage consistency, and in order to make a good manager, it’salways essential to be a good listener (Nelson&amp Quick, 2012).

  1. Leader-member Exchange Theory vs. Transformational/transactional Leadership

Overthe time, leadership theories have evolved from the traditionaltheories to modern theories which has stressed on the key aspect ofincorporating the leaders and the followers, in order to achieve thebest or achieve effective leadership within an organization. Some ofthe modern leadership theories include transformational ortransactional leadership and Leader-memberExchange Theory among many others (Griffin&amp Moorhead, 2012).

Leader-memberexchange theory refers to a two way communication or relationshipbetween the subordinates and the supervisors. On the other hand, thetransformational leadership entails the leader being entrusted withidentifying change, creating vision and guides the change throughinspiration with the help of team members. It also involvesinspiriting team members through motivating them, and enhancing theirmorale. Comparing the two styles of leadership, they both promotepositive relationships between the leaders and the employees. In bothcases, both the leaders and the subordinates are required to exercisehigh adaptability traits in order to fit within the teams. However,the two theories have differences and the main differences that, thetransformational leader is headed by a recognized leader and the restof team members follow his leadership, on the other hand, theLeader-member exchange theory, all the members of a team are treatedas equal. The two styles have different effect to an organizationalbehavior. For example the transformational leadership tends to createa self drive within the employees, as well as becoming visionary. Onthe other hand, the Leader-member exchange theory creates the senseof teamwork within an organization and in turn creating a closerelationship between employees and leaders (Griffin&amp Moorhead, 2012).

  1. Organization Culture

Organizationalculture is the human behavior within an organization as well as themeaning they attach to the behaviors. An organization’s culture ismade of aspects such as organization norms, systems, values, vision,symbols, assumptions, beliefs, habits and language. Organizationalculture can be formed through either conscious intent orconsideration or through contrast. In order to build organizationculture different aspect plays a key role. This includes teaching theculture, defining it, live it, measure it and reward the culture.These aspects are also essential in maintaining an already builtculture. To maintain a culture, an organization needs to define itsculture and differentiate it from others, develop and implement astrategic plan to implement the culture, ensuring all the employeesare into the culture, training new employees about the organizationculture and finally, being open to positive changes to keep theculture dynamic and accommodative. It is the organizational culturethat is the basis of an organization behavior, and hence it hasdirect influence on the organization behavior. The culture determinesthe organization ethics and accountability and in turn influencingits behavior (Nelson&amp Quick, 2012).

  1. Individual Vs Organizational Sources Of Resistance To Change, And Kotter’s Eight Step Of Change

Inany organization or change, one aspect that the subordinate or theworkers are assured of being changed. As the business environmentchanges, so does the organization need to change in order to adapt.However, not all changes are accepted freely within an organization,and in many cases, changes are often faced with resistance. Factorsbehind the change are diverse and numerous and may be both internaland external. Resistance to change comes in two forms, namely:individual sources or organizational resistance to change. Individualresistance to change is sorely driven by human characteristics suchneeds and personality while organizational resistance is anorganization driven resistance. Despite their differences in sourcesof the changes, the two acts in the same way as refuse to acceptchange (Griffin&amp Moorhead, 2012).

Asa manager, Kotter`seight-step plan for implementing change would be an effectiveapproach to accept and make effective changes to an organization. Thefirststep is the creation a sense of urgency as a manager, I wouldmobilize the relevant bodies, employees and leaders to sign up forthe change process. Secondly,I would assemble a powerful and energetic group to lead the changeeffort. Next,I would list down, the strategic vision, and initiatives which wouldbe the driving force behind the desired change.The fourthstep would be establishment of ready and willing people to form thearmy of volunteers to drive the change. Moreover, identification ofpossible barriers to the change initiative as well as removing thebarriers paving way for a smooth transition and change. Next is toidentify frequent evaluation of the change success keeping track onthe accomplishments achieved. Finally, is to sustain acceleration ofthe change process, as well as connecting the new behaviors’ andorganization culture and success, and ensuring the new change hasbeen fully implemented (Nelson&amp Quick, 2012).

  1. Boundary-less organization

ABoundary-less organization, is a recognized approach to organizationdesign. It’s denoted by being a design that is not limited byvertical, external or horizontal boundaries that may be imposed by apredefined structure. The main founder of this design is Jack Welch.In today’s organization structuring, companies are slowly findingthe design as a flexible approach and an effective means to run acompany. Different companies are suited for this design model.However, some of the companies that look to benefit from this modelinclude companies such as networked organizations, and virtualorganizations. For example, two companies outsourcing their businessfunctions in order to make sure they focus more into they want to. Agood example is ‘Apple Inc. partnering with Foxconn (Griffin&amp Moorhead, 2012).

  1. Statistical Analysis Questions

  1. Meaning of statistics, how it’s used and who uses it

Statisticsis the branch of mathematics that is mainly used to summarize,analyze, and interpret a group of collected data, numbers orobservations. In other words, statistics is the science or practiceof collecting and analyzing numerical data, in large quantities witha purpose of deducing proportions of the main sample. Over the time,statistics have been an important field of study to the peopleglobally. The knowledge of statistics was used even in early timesthrough practices such as census among others. In recent times theknowledge is used in different and diverse sectors such as, banking,survey, engineering, teaching, farming among other sectors.Statistics are used in finding information, making conclusions in thepresence of uncertainty (Ergle&amp Walpole, 2000).Moreover, the knowledge is used to make decisions on what is good orbad such as a product in the market. The knowledge on statistics hasbecome essential to almost all people globally. Some of the people orsectors that vastly use the knowledge include psychologists,economists, doctors, demographers, teachers, farmers, technologysectors such as Google, educators, politicians among many others(Pecket al, 2012).

  1. Uses of a frequency distribution and 3 key measures relating to frequency distribution

Thefrequency distribution is the representation of data in eithertabular or graphical format. The two displays observations againstgiven intervals. Frequency distribution usually comes in statisticalcontexts. Frequency distribution helps to interpret information moreeasily. Examples of methods that use the frequency distributioninclude the use of tables, histograms, and graphs bar charts amongothers. Within the frequency distribution context, there are key orimportant characteristics. These include measure of central tendency(mean, mode and median), measure of dispersion (variance, range, andstandard deviation), the extent of asymmetry/symmetry (skewness), andfinally flatness or peakness of data (kurtosis) (Pecket al, 2012).

  1. Examples for involving uses of Median, Mean, and Mode

Mean,median, and mode has become some of the widely used statisticalmeasures in the statistics field. The three statistical measures ofstatistics are termed as the basics of statistics. Looking into eachof the terms, Meanis defined as the average that is given by adding all the valuesgiven, and dividing the sum with the number of values. Mean isfrequently used to summarize group properties. Secondly, there isMedian,which is the middle value of any given data. It is the value thatseparates the upper (higher) half of any data from the lower half ofany sample data or distribution. Finally, there is the Mode.Thisthe most recorded value in any given set of data, additionally, it’sthe value that is most likely to be sampled out (Ergle&amp Walpole, 2000).

Example,calculate Mean, Median and Mode using the below given data, which areages of boys in years playing soccer in a school field. 13, 17, 15,13, 18, 14, 13, 15, and 17.

  • Mean (Average) = (13+17+14+13+18+15+13+15+17) ÷ 9 = 15. The mean age for boys is 15 years, according to the data collected.

  • Median, to calculate the median value, the data is organized in an ascending order. Such as 13, 13, 13, 14, 15, 15, 17, 17, 18. From the new data arranged, the middle value is the median of the data. In this case the middle value is 15, which is the median of the data.

  • Mode refers to the value repeated more often in a data, than any other. From the data above, the mode is 13. This is because it’s the value repeated more times (3), than any other.

  1. Normal probability distribution, Standard Normal Probability Distribution and their use today

Normaldistribution probability is a function that explains the probabilityof any given observation whether it will either be between realnumbers or real limits, as the plotted curve approaches zero oneither side. This knowledge is essential in both natural and socialsciences, as it’s used in random variables whose distributionsaren’t well known. Its denoted by different characteristics suchas the curve is symmetrical about the mean, the mean comes around inthe middle dividing the variables into two half’s, as well as thetotal area covered by the curve is equal to 1, and finally, thedistribution is given by the mean and the standard deviation. Inaddition to the Normal distribution probability, there is also theStandardNormal Probability Distribution.This is a unique case in the normal distribution, and it’s thedistribution that occurs, when a normal random variable has thestandard deviation as 1 and the mean as 0. In today’s society,these distributions are used differently and in varying sectors. Forexample, they are used for assessing probabilities, such as inschools during analysis of exam results, it’s also used in aviationindustry, surveying as well as when the national government isallocating resources in reference to the population (Ergle&amp Walpole, 2000).

  1. Application of probability in business to make it more successful

Oneof the major sectors that have applied the knowledge of probabilityto the maximum is the business sector. Probability distributions havefrequently been used successfully in estimating future returns andprofitability of any business. As a business owner, I would greatlyembrace the probability knowledge to uplift my business into a higherlevel in terms of sales and profit margins. In simple definition,probability distribution can be referred as a model in statisticsthat displays every possible result from a particular actionsupported with the statistical likelihood of an event to occur. Oneway I would use probability is scenario analysis. For example, I canuse the knowledge to analyze such as best and worst scenarios inbusiness, as well as helping determine likely scenarios. In addition,I would as well use the probability knowledge to make salesforecasting. Probability would be essential in helping to plan forthe future. Moreover, the probability would help me to do riskevaluation. Risk evaluation helps to determine the chances ofsurvival of the business which is an essential aspect in business.Through scenario evaluation, risk and scenario analyses, a businesscan choose the best favorable course for its success (Pecket al, 2012).

  1. Three types of Discrete probability Distribution and their uses

Probabilitydistributions either fall under the discrete probability distributionor continuously. When a variable can take any value between twospecified values, it’s referred to as a continuous variable, andthe opposite of this is what is known discrete variable. When avariable is defined as discrete, then its probability distribution iswhat is known as discrete probability distribution. There aredifferent types of discrete probability distribution such asbinomial, multinomial, hypergoemetric, negative and poisonprobability distribution (Ergle&amp Walpole, 2000).To commence with the binomial probability distribution is helpfulwhen dealing with probability with fixed number of trials,independent trials, and the probability of success remains and thereare two dissimilar classifications of data…..

  1. Hypothesis testing

Hypothesistesting can be defined as the use of statistics, to determine thepossibility or the probability than any given hypothesis is true ornot. This is a process that entails steps such as formulating thenull hypothesis, identifying the test statistics that is used toassess the truth of the formulated null hypothesis. Thirdly, is thecomputation of the p-value and finally comparing with an acceptablevalue (alpha value). Statistical, hypothesis falls into two, the nullhypothesis and alternative hypothesis. The hypothesis is differentfrom a research question due to the fact that, a hypothesis predictsan experimental outcome (Pecket al, 2012).

Exampleof a real world application of the hypothesis testing would be suchas the case of a company ABC that is determines to have a stableworkforce. The company has been in operation for 50 years, with anemployee number of more than 10,000. The company has for a long timeheld to the idea that, the average tenure of its employee is 20years. Taking into account that the ABC Company isn’t sure if thestatement above is still true, random sample of the employees can betaken to prove the hypothesis whether it stands or not (Pecket al, 2012).

  1. T-distribution, what needs not to be present, and its application in the real world

T-distributionis a theoretical type of probability distribution which resembles anormal distribution. This type of distribution is used to estimateprobabilities when dealing with incomplete data. Compare with thenormal distribution, a t-distribution has an additional parameterknown as degree of freedom. This degree of freedom is the number ofvariables used in the calculation of a given statistic. Propertiesof the t-distribution include the aspect that, the mean of thedistribution is taken as zero, variance is taken as v/(v-2),where v, is the degree of freedom, and it’s always greater than 1.With the existence of numerous questions where estimation, or winunknown parameter, and with additive errors, a t-distribution is usedinstead. In the real world the distribution can be used in statisticinvolving people’s reaction, beliefs and behaviors’ with animportant topic such as driving in inclement weather (Ergle&amp Walpole, 2000).


Griffin,R. W., &amp Moorhead, G. (2012).&nbspOrganizationalbehavior: Managing people and

organizations.Mason, OH: South-Western/Cengage Learning.

Nelson,D. L., &amp Quick, J. C. (2012).&nbspOrganizationalbehavior: Science, the real world, and you.

Mason,Ohio: South-Western.

Peck,R., Olsen, C., &amp Devore, J. L. (2012).&nbspIntroductionto statistics and data analysis.Boston,

MA:Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.

Ergle,W. D., &amp Walpole, R. E. (2000).&nbspStudentstudy guide [for] Introduction to statistics [by]

RonaldE. Walpole.New York: Macmillan.