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Ling Exam 9

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  1. Word classes.

Labeleach and every word for its part of speech

  1. Interwoven papyrus reeds formed a tapestry of intricate designs.


Verb NounDetNoun Prep AdjNoun.

  1. That yummy stew that has a strong aroma delighted the soldier after skiing

DetAdj NounPronVerbDetAdjNoun VerbDet Noun Prep Verb.

  1. Inescapable pearls of wisdom await any learner during a semester of linguistics.


Adj Noun prep NounVerb PronNoun Prep Noun Noun.


  1. Transcription.

Interwovenpapyrus reeds formed a tapestry of intricate designs.


Thatyummy stew that has a strong aroma delighted the soldier after skiing

ðætˈjʌmistu ðət həz ə strɔŋəˈroʊmədɪˈlaɪtədðəˈsoʊlʤərˈæftər ˈskiɪŋ

Inescapablepearls of wisdom await any learner during a semester of linguistics.

ˌɪnɪˈskeɪpəbəlpɜrlzəv ˈwɪzdəməˈweɪtˈɛniˈlɜrnərˈdʊrɪŋəsəˈmɛstərəv lɪŋˈgwɪstɪks.

  1. Syntactic trees diagrams.

.Interwoven papyrusreeds formeda tapestryofintricatedesigns.


Verb NounDetNoun Prep AdjNoun.




NP(papyrusreeds) N(designs)


V(formed) D(a) PP(of) Adj(intricate)

That yummystew thathasa strong aroma delightedthe soldierafter skiing

DetAdj NounPronVerbDetAdjNoun VerbDet Noun Prep Verb.




D(that) VP



V(has) D(a)


Adj(strong) N(aroma)V


Inescapable pearls of wisdomawaitany learnerduringasemesterof linguistics.


Adj Noun prep NounVerb PronNoun Prep Noun Noun.




VP P(during) D(a) P(of)


V(awaits) P(any) N(leaner) N(semester)

Adj(Inescapable) (linguistics).

(pear of wisdom)

4. morphology.

Analyzethe following 3 English words in terms of their morphemes(i,ii) andthen create


  1. Intensifies





Af(in) V(tensif)

  1. Confusion.


Af(con) Verb(fusion)

  1. improvement.


verb Af(ment)

Af(im) verb(prove)


InSeneca, a North American language with about 10,000 speakers left,[s] and [z] areeither contrastive or in complementary distribution.

Argueif [s] and [z] are contrastive or in complementary distribution andwhy you think so. If the two sounds are contrastive, provide evidencewhy you think so. If the two sounds are in complementarydistribution, specify the distribution of allophones in formalphonological rule.

Inphonology, a minimally phonologically distinctive pair of wordsestablishes a minimal distinctive linguistic sound, known as aphoneme, and a minimal distinctive sound is one which can distinguishone word from another when all other sounds are identical, thesephones are said to be in contrastive distribution, whileComplementary distribution indicates that two basic sounds are notindependent phonemes, but conditioned variants of the same phoneme,of the same minimally distinctive sound. Twosounds are contrastive if interchanging the two can change meaning ofthe word.

Thewords provided in the example, in Seneca Language, could bepronounced the same, but if they are used interchangeably the meaningof the sentence could change.

6.Semantic roles.

Referringto the semantic roles described in the Finegan text, label thesemantic roles for each underlined NP in the sentences below.

Therole that a noun phrase plays in a sentence. A semantic role is theunderlying relationship that a participant has with the main verb ina clause or a sentence. Simply the actual role that the subject playsto the object. In this case the subject is the agent and the objectis the patient.Agentis the&nbspsemanticrole&nbspofa person or thing who is the doer. The receiver of the semantic roleis the agent or the referent. Otherexamples of semantic roles include:Cause cause is one that causes something or it is a reason for somehappenings, experiencerOne who experienced the action, location place the action occurredand instrument, the thing or something used by the agent to executethe action. The entities that are labeled should have participated inan event.


  1. A well-heeled courtesan viewed the troubadours at the polo field on Friday.

Courtesanis the agent, this is the doer of the action, troubadours is thereceiver of the action, this is the referent and the polo field isthe location the action took place, OnFriday&quot does not receive any role from the verb.

  1. The &quotBronies&quot flung the flaming tar with an aged catapult.

TheBronies does the role of an agent or the doer of the action. Theflaming tar is the referent, the receiver of the action in this case.An aged catapult is the instrument used to carry out the action, inthis case Bronies used an aged catapult to flung.

  1. The generous rat sent his beloved cheese collection to the disbelieving critic.

Thegenerous rat semantic role is that of an agent, it is the doer of theaction. His beloved cheese collection is the cause, meaning it playsthe role of the causer to the referent, it is being used by the agentto execute the action.desbelieving critic is the receiver of theaction in this sentence, so the semantic role it plays is that of thereferent or experience.

  1. Nathan bought several useless figurines at the Hallmark gift store.

Nathanplays the role of the agent. Several useless figurines is thereceiver of the action hence, is the referent and Hallmark gift storeis the location the action took place.