Motivationis the driving force that makes a person to attain some setobjectives. The term basically applies to human beings even though intheory it is used to explain animal behavior. Various theories havebeen used to illustrate motivation and may entail such basic wantslike eating and resting, stipulated goal, ideal, object, state ofbeing or can be based on essential need to optimize pleasure andreduce physical pains. Motivation can be extrinsic or intrinsic.
Intrinsicmotivation is motivation that is influenced by gratification or aninterest in the act itself and is not dependent on external pressuresbut rather originate from within a person. Extrinsic motivation onthe other hand is motivation resulting from external pressures. It isassociated with incentives like rewards such as money, grades,trophies, coercion, threats or punishment. Extrinsic rewards cancause over justification and subsequent decrease in intrinsicmotivation (Nohriaet al., 2001).Extrinsic motivation may become internalized by an individual if hisor her beliefs and values conform to the duties thus helping fulfillhis fundamental psychological needs.
Employersare responsible of motivating their employees in order to enhanceoutput and performance. Extrinsic motivation pushes a person toperform assigned chores consistently and remarkably even after thereward is eliminated from the system. Employees can be motivated indifferent ways including rewards, benefits, compensation, andgenerally in the way they are treated. Putting employees’ needs orinterests before profits and everything else makes them work as ifthey are part and parcel of the organization (Whisenand, 2011).
Motivationand performance are different in that, motivation is the drive thatinfluences performance. Personally, the desire to succeed and changethe world motivates me to work hard every day.
Nohria,N., Lawrence, P., and Wilson, E. (2001). Driven:How human nature shapes our choices.San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Whisenand,P. M. (2011). Supervisingpolice personnel: The fifteen responsibilities(7th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Learning.