Meaningsof Intelligence and Adaptive Behavior
Meaningsof Intelligence and Adaptive Behavior
Itis worth noting that, despite the fact that some children can beindentified to have intellectual problem at early stages due to someapparent development delays or genetic anomalies, such as diagnosison sight and among many others, majority of students aren’tdiscovered with intellectual disability till they complete theirschool life (American Educational Research Association (AERA), 1999).During the episode of social peers and academically, it is the timethat their disability starts to come out. Generally, the initialeducation curriculum as well as the language-medicated socialenvironment of kindergarten, preschool and the initial score or gradeturns out to be the first informal methods of teasing out thedistinctiveness in knowledge level. To hit the nail on the head, incase of a delayed discovery, the more the severe level the child willbe affected. In case of such situation whereby the child isdiscovered to have non-biological form of intellectual disability,the psychological and educational assessment should be applied inorder to avoid deteriorated problem in the child’s future.
Ethicaland Legal Thoughtfulness about Assessment
Asnoted byAmericanEducational Research Association (AERA) (1999), the biggest challengerelating to the practice of testing, assessment or evaluation is themisuse of the procedures or disregarding the key factor of assessmentin the first place. It is worth noting that, some educationalpractices turns out to be obsessed on the test rather than beingconcerned about what is the purpose of conducting the test in thefirst place or whether the gathered materials has a significant usefor crafting or designing measurable instructional/interventionobjectives. In case the team collects material or information on astudent that eventually relays on an individual’s file-drawer, thenit rises a serious questions on why the instrument or test wasconducted in the primarily stage. The evaluation instrument and testas well as assessment protocol ought to be educationally valid andhave enviable of treatment utility.
However,even though the testing development and technological advancement hasbeen there for so many years, there is still a huge concern regardingthe instrument or test on the market, which is widely viewed asshoddy, meaning not up to the standards. Mostly, as noted by Drew &Hardman (2007), majority of work is done in a hurry in order to meetthe demand of public education.
TheStandards for Educational and Psychological Testing as well as theIndividuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) usually offers agiven mandates regarding legal and ethical practices for legal andethical assessment and testing process (American Educational ResearchAssociation, 1999). Below are the requirements, which are outlined byboth publications:
Educators ought not to use a single indicator to determine if a child is suffering from disability.
Educators ought to apply only technically sound instruments.
Educators ought to ensure that test are chosen and administered in an unbiased procedure.
Educators ought to administer a test via a child’s native language.
Lastly but not the list, tests ought to be administered by specifically the knowledgeable and trained personnel as well as follows the instructions from the protocols of test.
Intelligencecan be viewed in distinct ways like a person’s capacity forunderstanding, logic abstract thought, communication, emotionalknowledge, self awareness, learning, creativity, memory and problemsolving as well as planning. As noted by Taylor et al., (2005), whencomes to the intelligence test, it has been going over in theAmerican culture for over 100 years. This involvement has been incentre for political war stimulated by culturally discriminatorybehaviors, which are also motivated by the philosophy of biologicaldeterminism.
Asnoted by Taylor et al., (2005), there are lots of intelligence teststhat exit in the modern globe. However, majority of those texts onlymeasures a test-takers skill, which is basically aimed at solvingproblems through the application of convert and overt languagereasoning procedures as well as the general comprehension. As aresult, according to Salvia et al., (2007), this is the major reasonas to why the IQ tests extend beyond a huge deal with evaluationtools applied by speech language pathologists. It is worth notingthat, cognitive measures are domains, which are crafted in order tomeasure the working memory (such as short-term memory and amongothers) and mental processing skills/speed (such as accurately andskills of solving problems fast, which commonly known ascurriculum-based measurement as glibness).
WhatIs Adaptive Behavior?
Accordingto AAMR`s (2002), it is very important when evaluating the prevalenceof intellectual disability on a child an intelligence assessmentought to be accompanied by adaptive behavior assessment. It is worthnoting that low cognitive functioning as stipulated by intelligencemeasure ought to be closely parallel low functioning when comes toadaptive behavior. According to American Association of Mentalretardation (AAMR) (2002), this should be attained first beforeadopting it to the education. A low functioning is defined as astandard mean score of 70 and below out of 100. On other hand, anadaptive behavior can be defined as a way of survival, whereby theenvironment where one’s lives in have to navigate though itsmoothly. It can also be viewed as the potential of overcomingdanger, taking safety measures and thrive it as well as the technicalknowhow of living in the current environment and being flexible toemerging changes that may arise in future.
Itis not possible to measure adaptive behavior in a similar way likeintellectual or cognitive skills. Basically, the measurement ofadaptive behavior primarily relies on a third respondent’scontribution regarding what they understand about the person who isbeing assessed. This means that it is not a primary assessment, sinceit relies on secondary research (American Educational ResearchAssociation (AERA), 1999).
Fromthe above discussion, it is clear that there are distinct methods ofdefining adaptive behaviors as well as intelligence. However, theaspect of intelligence and adaptive behavior is very important inschools, as it assist to distinguish which students are struggling inlearning. This will assist teachers to come up with an advancedmethodology of providing those kinds of students with educationalprograms that fits in their shoes. It is also worth for evaluators toapply ethical tools while accessing the students.
AmericanAssociation of Mental retardation (AAMR) (2002). Mentalretardation: Definition, classification, and systems of supports(10thed.). Washington, DC: Author.
AmericanEducational Research Association (AERA) (1999).Standards for educational and psychological testing.Washington, DC: Author.
Drew,C. J., & Hardman, M. L. (2007). Intellectualdisabilities across the lifespan(9thed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Taylor,R. L., Richards, S. B., & Brady, M. P. (2005). Mentalretardation: Historical perspectives, current practices, and futuredirections.Boston: Allyn & Bacon.