Management questions Unit





Efficiencyis the utilization of available resources in a manner that givesmaximum possible returns while effectiveness is the ability to choosethe most suitable goals or targets and employ suitable processes toachieve them. Management requires both efficiency and effectiveness.These requirements are not substitutes but work in a complementarymanner to improve performance (Johnston 2014).

Inmanagement, managers must learn how to bring out the best out theresources at their disposal. However, management may not achieve this100% always hence they keep trying out new combinations of resourcesand strategy. To be competitive, management must be effective inidentifying goals and achieving them to move forward. Therefore,management must be effective and efficient at all times (Johnston,2014).


Middlelevel managers are tasked with making departmental decisions andsetting goals and targets. These goals are implemented by theworkforce middle managers including supervisors. Therefore, themiddle manager is also responsible for overseeing the subjects,motivating and inspiring them to achieve the set targets (middlemanagement 2104).

Middlemanagers are also tasked with implementing change in the departments.While top managers plan for change, middle managers implement them byoverseeing implementation of strategy on a day to day basis. They arealso responsible for monitoring the performance and appraising theperformance of the workforce to ensure efficiency and effectiveness(middle management 2104).


Mintzbergidentified three basic roles of managers as interpersonal,informational and decisional. Under interpersonal role, the manageracts as a figurehead, a leader and a liaison officer. This makes amanager a source of inspiration for employees to look up to, provideleadership and be the point of contact with the organization’sinternal and external communication (Bartol etal.,2008).

Amanager’s decisional responsibility pertains to being theentrepreneur, the resource allocator, negotiator and an intermediaryin resolving conflict. Informational role pertains to monitoring, anddisseminating information as well was being the spokesman of theorganization and the people. All these roles are equally importantand none should be elevated at the cost of another (Bartol etal.,2008).


Theindustrial revolution changed the organization of work andorganizations themselves. Organizations employed machines in somemajor work processes that would have otherwise required numeroushands. Production by organizations also shifted from cottageproduction to mass production where numerous units were produced byspecialized departments in a coordinated manner (Factory Workers2014).

Jobsalso changed dramatically with the workplace and home becominglydistinctively different. Job roles were assigned along gender lineswith men considered suitable to work in factories where hard laborwas required while women were relegated to household chores. Unlikethe cottage industry which relied significantly on child laborespecially for family owned businesses, the industrial revolutiondiscouraged child labor and set out clear qualifications and skills(Factory Workers 2014).


TheHawthorne effect demonstrated that human beings tend to improve inhuman behavior or performance as a result of increased attention fromsupervising authorities. However, this improvement only lasts a shortperiod of time and diminishes over time until another change in theenvironment. The findings highlight the importance of supervisingemployees in the workplace to improve performance. On the other hand,the effect implies that supervision in the workplace should be doneunobtrusively to understand better employee behavior (Cherry 2014).

Theapproach has also been used in the workplace to vouch for change.Continuous change in the workplace results in newer environments foremployees which motivates them to work harder and up theirperformance. Additionally, working in teams is also helpful becausethe members supervise one another and peer influence motivates betterbehavior (Cherry 2014).


Bartol, K, Titson, P. &ampScott-Ladd, B. (2008). Managementfoundations.2nded. Brisbane:


Cherry,K. (2014). What Is the Hawthorne Effect? Retrieved from

FactoryWorkers in the British Industrial Revolution. Retrieved from

Johnston,K. (2014). The differencebetween efficiency &amp effectiveness in strategic management.


Middlemanagement (2014). Retrieved from