Management Assessment2


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Thefirst part of the essay is an analysis of communication theory ininformation technologies as a unique approach to Apple’s leadershipin regard to establishing a new culture that projected Apple to ahigh corporate scale (Cromar, 2013). The leadership of Steve Jobs wasexemplary in making this theory a reality is depicted in the casestudy. For instance, during his tenure, the organization went throughphenomenal stages of innovation to another. It introduces a newproduct that either compliments or replaces the previous one. In 2001the introduction of a new operating system, X based on UNIX was aturning point innovation that helped Apple prevail the dominance ofits competitors like Microsoft. The leadership of Steve Jobs and thecommunication structure of Apple is the point of focus.

Duringhis time, the culture of secrecy introduced by Steve jobs helped toguard its property rights against being stolen by competitors. It wasduring this time that, there was the development of notable productssuch as the iPhone, iPads among others, thus making the firm toremain competitive. There is also a mention of the monopolisticnature of the market that Apple operates in. Analyzing Apple’smarket structure facilitates an understanding of the motivations ofJob’s leadership and its relationship with the theory ofcommunication explained in the introduction. Finally, the conclusionlooks at Apple in the 21stCentury as a way to focus on the future of the company in relation tocommunications theory.

HowIntercultural Communication Theory informs Apple’s leadershipPractices

ConcurrentTheory in Leadership and Communication

Fromthe case study, it is evident that, culture is a many-sided concept which has often referring to a group of people sharing similar insights and understanding of their World. Asglobalization as well as new communication technologies bring theworld as one trading block, it is necessary for public relations professionals to help organizations find their waythrough cultural terrains. An essential aspect of many publicrelations expert’s jobs is to communicate with various stakeholdersand stake seekers (Raikes, 2003). Communicating with varied publics is a complicated task in a country or region when the public relations practitioner shares the same cultural surroundings with the public. As a professional practice, conversations include the capability to pay attention (with an open mind),identify with with others, admit when one is in the wrong, and betransformed by the experience of communicating with others.Eventually, discourse is a set of interpersonal and intercultural communication skills and a course toward other people rather a set of rigid rules. Conversational communicators donot disregard people for whichever reason.

In the contemporary age of public communication research, abstract scholars developed a targeted procedure of background research intended to understand specific communication circumstances, called &quotgenres.&quot A communication circumstance involves being considerate to the background andsuppositions of audience members, their cultural ways of life, and their expectations as audience members (Parker, 2005).Valuable and ethical intercultural communication depends uponappreciating how a public is likely to react to a message(White &amp Imes, 2013). Furthermore, public relations communication should be considerate to situations where forceful messages should come from in a culture (in regard to media outlets, which spokespeople), and other populations. Forinstance, in some cultures, religious leaders have great publicauthority and persuasion , whereas, in other cultures, athletesand celebrities can shape how people comprehend situations and concerns.

Appleis the market leader due to the following reasons: It has the highestmarket value. At the end of 2012 fiscal year, it had a market valueof 558939.5 million. This was far higher than any of its competitors.The market value represents the price at which a firm’s shares canbe traded. In the same fiscal year, it had the leading market shareof the tablets shipment in the world (Ye &amp Kankanhalli, 2013).This implies that its tablets are meeting the market needs and has alarger customer’s base than its competitors.

TheDifference between Apple Leadership Style and Other Companies

Thenotable difference between Apple products and those of itscompetitors is that, they are successive in nature, as one product isthe result of the failures of the previous one. They offer superiorsolutions to consumers and always have something more due toinnovation. Apple operates in a monopolistic competition.

Factorsthat have Contributed to Apple’s Leadership Success


Thecase study outlines the unique achievements of Steve jobs since hetook over Apple. The organization went through phenomenal stages ofinnovation to another. It introduces a new product that eithercompliments or replaces the previous one. For instance, in 2001 theintroduction of a new operating system, X based on UNIX was a turningpoint innovation that helped Apple prevail the dominance of itscompetitors like Microsoft. Apple’s success is largely due to thefact that it confronts market dynamics and sets the pace for themarket is it maintains the simplicity of its products for itscustomers (Giber, Lam, Goldsmith, &amp Bourke, 2009). When thecompany launches a new product, it is already thinking about the nextinnovation on it even before the product sinks deep to the consumers’base. Long before anyone including its competitors could come up witha seriously competitive product to outdo the iPhones the iPad was inthe offering under the leadership of Steve jobs.

Jobsinstilled a culture of research and innovation in Apple. Apple isalways researching about customer preferences before they think aboutit. It does not take long for another product to be produced in orderto meet the market needs. From the beginning it shifted from being apersonal computer provider to both and later to a mobile company. Itmust have realized that customers are continuously in need of potableproducts that have microprocessors in place of heavy centralprocessing units that were also produced by other companies likeMicrosoft. IPods led to the production of iPhones which had moresynchronized applications (O`Grady, 2009). The iPhones paved way foriTunes. Before iTunes could begin to face competition from otherproducers the iCloud was on the way. This continuous process ofdeveloping a new product out of another is the greatest strength thatis notable about Apple.

Thelate Steve Jobs and the current Chief Executive Tim Cook have beenpivotal in the tremendous success of Apple Inc. Steve instilled aculture of innovation that has continuously set the pace for futureexecutives. Apple leadership realized that innovation was the bestsolution to increased competition and the only way to remainsustainable. The aggressiveness to protect its intellectual propertyrights was instrumental in maintaining the uniqueness of AppleProducts. Although the policy may not be wholesomely beneficial toinnovation today, it is still a very important pillar safeguardingthe Company’s brands to be exclusive and of superior quality as theloyal customers may have considered them to be. The lead designer,Jonathan Ives being the lead designer was the person the execution ofApple’s new product development thanks to the fact that Jobsallowed him to be fully in charge of the design process. Appleproducts are simple to use and of great quality (Lick, Clauset &ampMurphy, 2001). The fact that they are compatible with other productsmakes them cheaper than those of their competitors. For example,developers find it easier to write applications on an iPhone than anAndroid which needs them to write specific versions for each Androidphone.

Astrong Corporate Leadership Introduced by Steve jobs

Theculture of secrecy introduced by Steve jobs helped to guard itsproperty rights against being stolen by competitors. It isinteresting that even employees were not supposed to be privy to theprocess of developing another product. During the development of theiPhone, it was done under great secrecy, and even the Apple’semployees did not know about it. Leaking the company’s secretsamounts to dismissal since the time Jobs took over Apple. However,the current Chief Executive, Tim Cook, is likely to loosen thisstance because of the current market changes in the market.

Applein the 21st Century

AppleInc., of this century can give a looser stance to the intellectualproperty right as it guards carefully on potential threats from sucha decision than it did before. Holding secrets about property rightsto the extreme can be detrimental to business, especially those thathighly depend on frequent innovation. Opening its software codes canattract more input from outside sources. This century has a moremarket competitive than the previous century. This implies thatinnovation has to go a notch higher for Apple to retain its marketshare. Competitors are more open on their software than Apple, andthis may give them an edge in future. One competitor like Google,with its android phones, is beginning to cut into the industry.


Cromar,S 2013, Moving into Management. In From Techie to Boss (pp. 1-11).Apress.

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Lick,D. W., Clauset, K. H., &amp Murphy, C. U 2001, New report addressesinvesting for Common Core.

O`Grady,J 2009, AppleInc.ABC-CLIO

Parker,B 2005, Introduction to globalization and business: relationships andresponsibilities. Sage.

Raikes,H. The Body (neo) Poetic 2003, ChoreographingExperiential Convergences between Corporeality and Kinesthetic Media.67-78

White,R. W., &amp Imes, K. R 2013, U.S. Patent No. 8,359,007. Washington,DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Ye,J., &amp Kankanhalli, A 2013, Exploring innovation through opennetworks: A review and initial research questions. IIMBManagement Review,25(2), 69-82.