Language loss, language attrition and language delay in bilingual population. Describe and compare language acquisition processes of immigrant and internationally-adopted children.
Languageis bound to changes, alterations and even loss or complete erosionowing to various factors from within the speakers and externally fromother influential environments. Social scientists and researchershave come up with adequate findings and conclusions regardinglanguage loss, attrition and delay. The immigrant communities are themost prone to the changes to their ethnic languages as they changetheir environments into new ones where pronunciation, tonalvariations and intonations of a language are quite different(Palacios,Maite and Carlos 443).Immigrants end up becoming bilingual or even multilingual and thiscauses the changes in language as the two or more languages theyhave to adopt are diverse. One of the languages could end up beingeroded as it may not be commonly used.
Theanalyzing of the bilingual is done with an assumption that languagesparticularly the initial or the mother tongue is an essential part inthe identifications such as cultural, ethnicity, nationality andmaintenance of such like identities (Hvenekildeand Lanza 67).Some communities retain their ideological language however,multilingual groups provide a complicated picture portraying thesituation and could end up creating a drawback to the assumed socialnetworking evaluations(José 99).
Thissection presents the implementation of social network analysis tomultilibilingual communities by identifying the origin point in theFilipino found in Norway capital city with an objective ofunderstanding culture or language maintenance (Hvenekildeand Lanza 106).Outcomes from the conducted analysis and research provide adequatesupport for the necessity of social network in promotingunderstanding of the choke of language, the maintenance of cultureand linguistics as well. However, a number of exceptions wereidentified. There is an explanation to language ideology and theinter-relationship that exists between the language andidentification as a reliable source of information for languageoption and its maintenance (Hvenekildeand Lanza 106).
Inthe last few years, studies aimed at understanding of multilingualismand trilingualism has provided information regarding thebilingualisms showing that they may take different dimensions. Theinformation contained in the international journal of bilingualismindicates that more than two languages exist (Gindis299).We would also lay an argument in this article and portray the socialnetwork as a powerful organ in determining optional language in thebilingual learning activities.
Inaddition, the study of Social Network Analysis (SNA) has an underlaid assumption associated with bilingualism (Hoffmannand Jehannes 64).It is assumed that language is a vital consideration when collectiveidentification such as culture, nationality, ethnic identificationand that the preservation of language across genetic intervals is anessential factor in the maintenance of the exemplifiedidentifications.
Somecommunities might maintain the ideology of the language however,communities with multiple languages portray a complicated scenarioand may introduce a setback to the SNA.The informationprovided is an inference of several Filipinos in the Oslo with areference on the parties who owned children aged eighteen and belowthe age that is recommended for clearing the secondary education(José 38).This data is seconded with data retrieved from an in- depth socialstudy involving a few children with their parents examined with anaim of making a deeper insight in the prediction of the languageoption having relied on social networks.
Further,some potential elaborations emphasizing on the linguistic ideologiesand the inter-relationship between bilingual and identifications canstipulated clearly. The SNA provides evidence that there exist someexternal forces which have a direct influence on sociolinguistics.This is through a research carried out with an objective of citingout the potential factors affecting the culture, language and itsmaintenance. A vital part to be noted of the social network and itsfunctioning is to carry studies on languages is that the members inthe network are allowed to share the ideologies and the purpose of aparticular language. When the case is subjected to the migrantindividuals, it is assumed that the language of the migrant istransmitted to the next generations as a way of maintaining thecultural identifications.
Thedomination exhibited by the paradigm in the application of thesciences and in language approaches to the learning of language andidentifications is becoming more complicated in the modern society.As earlier noted the identities between the paradigms are presentedas varying and socially formulated especially in its appearance andinteraction.
Inthis case, a Filipino index may be awarded to the person whoseNorwegian identification is powerful in general or is in a positionto construct an identity. In some parts of social relations, theissue of ethnicity is a complex hold which calls for specialattention. The SNA applies a more specialized approach the issue ofidentification where the category of ethnic groups is recognized andobserved. This is facilitated by the behavior and can be analyzed. Itis however assumed that the transmission of the language increaseswith the increase in population of individuals with a common ethnicoriginality. This is therefore believed to effect language transferto the children.
Theresearch in our case shows that the SNA pattern is not compatiblewith the migrant communities and does not refute the application ofSNA. Instead the migrants show the vitality of identification whichis accompanied by several setbacks and which appreciates the flow ofidentities as a more applicable path. Multilingualism has numerousidentities in which the ethnicity and the newly introduced identitiesfind dominance in specific situations.
Insome other situations, the effective use of the minorities’language is done to maintain ethnicity. When similar communities withsimilar grounds interact, there is increased multiplicity ethnicitywhich is expressed as a consequence. This is very evidentparticularly in the migrants’ children.
Duringthe introduction of the international adoptees, they are termed asmonolingual and not bilingual. This is because they only know onelanguage which they lose after some time. This is due to lack oflanguage support from relatives or family members. The setting inschools and all the learning institutions offer their services inEnglish. The existence of adopted children from Soviet Bloc in the1990s introduced significant variations in the traits of theimmigrants entering the United States and also changed the type oflifestyle led by these children prior the adoption (Hoffmannand Jehannes 106). The largest percentage of internationally adopted children came fromgovernmental subsided homes. This is contrasted with the increasingadoption from Russia and some parts of the Eastern Europe. A smallpercentage of children aged five to nine years used to be adopted.Many children adopted internationally today are in pre-schools,nursery schools, and primary or in high schools. Thinking of thesechildren as single group with no typical difference becomes a majordrawback in the whole country. The foreign orphans have to beintroduced to the formal education while the child adjusts to thestrange families adapting their new social environment including theculture of the new group. The child ends up learning a foreignlanguage and forgets the initial mother tongue (Hoffmannand Jehannes 64).Treating the whole group of foreign orphans as a uniform group willbe inconveniencing in the presentation of the ethnicity, social life,and variations on culture among their cradle countries. In additionto the contrasting potential of internationally adopted orphans withthe immigrants, international adoptees have a special set of traitsthat differentiate them from domestically adopted orphans, from achild of an immigrant, from the bilingual community or from offspringat large.
Havingdifferences in ethnicity, culture and personal differences,international adoptees are lucky to have a common unifying factor.Without exempting any one of them, they all use English as theirsecond language. Issues related with bilingual, lack of initiallanguage, communicating and cognitive language, setbacks in learningEnglish, formal academics among others are all associated with rapidloss of a language and the slowed acquisition of another one forreplacement. The article aimed at outlining the great importance ofthe first language which is attributed to all forms of learning. Thepurpose of this paper was to share existing study results andclinical encounters about linguistics, formal learning, and cognitiveissues among others in the immigrant adoptees as well as theinternationally adopted children
ETHNOLINGUISTICNATIONALISM VERSUS MULTILINGUALISM IN EDUCATION POLICIES IN EUROPE
3.How are ideologies of ethno linguistic nationalism versusmultilingualism implemented in education policies in Europe?
Peoplein Europe adopt multilingualism and withdraw from their originalnonlinguistic behavior. This is influenced by the contributions andthe benefits attributed to multilingualism. For instance, France andGermany are typical countries in Europe that can be used to explainthe issue of ethno linguistics and multilingualism. Througheducational forums offered to children, both countries are classicexamples of countries in Europe that implement policies intended topromote multilingualism (Beacco & Kenza 23). A research studycomparing multilingualism in the two countries concluded that the useof multiple languages is highly facilitated by the education forumsaccepted by the two countries. The research also showed that theissue of multilingualism has favored learning of essential Europeanlinguistics over the migrant and minor languages which are conservedas cultural pride (Beacco & Kenza 23).
Byadopting a new framework of institutionalism, an argument is found tojustify the fitness of multilingualism across the continent. Thedifference in the view of utilitarianism and the aspects of theculture in Germany and France is believed to have resulted from theinstitution based foreign and initial language termed as mothertongue which is an aspect in educational trends across Europe(Baldauf 129). In further research aimed at planning and formulatinglanguage policies, France and Germany show some similarity inlinguistics and are thus termed as nations with homogeneity (Beacco &Kenza 23). The two countries not only border each other but alsoshare linguistic behaviors.
Historyindicates a great role played by the forums of education in unifyingthe linguistic and transmitting the languages of the two nations totheir own citizens. This has been observed since the nineteenthcentury. With the provision of the major socio-logical variationsthat affect the environment of global nations, these two countrieshave been noted in portraying the progress of the global integrationin Europe. The systems of education implemented in the two countriescurrently have two common objectives that include creatingproficiency of the European language and also ensuring expertise inthe conveyance of language skills borrowed from foreigners (Spolsky &Francis 43).
Thelearning of foreign languages has been increasing to a great extentsince the Second World War ended. This has been quoted as animprovement since the education used to be offered to the minoritiesand not to all citizens (Spolsky & Francis 43). The expansion isassociated with the progress of the education forums in Germany andFrance. In addition, the facilitation of the democracy and theextension of the course duration in the two countries have influencedmultilingualism (Ager 230).
Theconcept of multilingualism was found after the reformulation of theobjective of new languages. This was through the efforts of Europe inits integration progress. Policies proposed by the European Councilalso had some positive influence in the concept development. Thisoperation was in place during the early 1990s under the control ofthe European Union. A wider consensus currently prevails around theissue of multilingualism in almost all the countries in Europe(Spolsky & Francis 43). Researchers have gone a step further toaccept multilingualism terming it as the newly introduced ideology inthe European learning forums (Baldauf 129).
Inthe modern context, the issue of policies governing the multilinguallearning is protected by all the different participants involved inlanguage learning and policy making (Ager 230). Apart from thiscontemporary consensus, the issue of multilingualism and its impactsare elaborated in the policy records preserved by Europe and themultilingual learning regulations implemented in Germany and France(Beacco & Kenza 23). In the two countries, language learningpolicies are to a great extent regulated by the country’s view as anonlinguistic nation (Beacco & Kenza 23).
Normallanguage learning programmes are defined by the complete or partiallack of acknowledgement of the diversity in the internal languages.In addition, the language system can be identified by recognizing thelack of using immigrant languages. Use of foreign linguistic languageis frequently associated with the European progress in terms ofintegration (Spolsky & Francis 43). The continued and increaseduse of English is becoming significant in the education forumsimplemented by Germany and the French. A huge percentage of pupilswhich is believed to be more than 90% take English language as acourse in schools (Spolsky & Francis 43).
Thepressure exhibited by the utilitarianism against the aspects ofculture in the foreign linguistics education forums has obviouslybeen attached to modern developments in the world economy and thediversity of capitalism (Ager 230). The increasing individualmovement, the impacts of industrialization and the facilitation ofthe economy information also characterize this pressure. A generalresearch done from the aspects of press papers, public accounts andposition articles portray the multilingualism education asinconvenient (Ager 230 Spolsky & Francis 43 Beacco & Kenza23). However, teaching of the foreign linguistics has been increasingin the last few decades.
Restructuringand modernization of the foreign linguistic learning has been done byuse of strategies laid by the French and Germany (Beacco & Kenza23). This is in accordance with the provisions made by the systems ofeducation across the nations and the involvement of the policymakers, the actors, and the whole public at large (Baldauf 129).Economically, the increased cases of unemployment are as a result oflack of mastery of the exotic language. The co foreign linguisticskills are viewed as the causal agents of the increasing demands inthe job vacancies. Many pupils have witnessed the rising demand whereapplication of foreign linguistic skills is direct and fair (Spolsky& Francis 43). This is attached to the effective utilitarianshaping of foreign language education and multilingualism formulatedpolicies by the European council and its authorized commissions(Baldauf 198).
Francehas experienced a greater diversity in the internal languages. Thishas resulted from the huge number of linguistics in the region andthe territory at large this provides a better explanation of theresponse which would result in speaking of multiple languages inhomes other than French(Beacco & Kenza 23).This might not be the case in Germany where in some cases themultilingualism is subject to several setbacks(Beacco & Kenza 23).
Historyshows that languages spoken across the region have been of greatinsight to the unity of the French citizens(Beacco & Kenza 25).The learning, however, was excluded from the back up provided in thesystems of education. The central region is hostile and creates ahuge threat to the newly introduced languages dating back to thepolicies of the Jacobins imposed earlier in the country(Spolsky & Francis 246).This progresses in shaping the way these languages are perceived inthe modern society. One of the main aims of introducing thecompulsory schooling policy was to enhance uniformity in thelinguistics across the country through teaches given to the pupils(Beacco & Kenza 176).
Thelearning of the different languages in the region was originallyintroduced by the French learning forums which were conducted byadopting the Deixome regulation(Beacco & Kenza 187).The law gave room for the use and teaching of the local linguisticsand dialects. The knowledge speeded in the Breton, Basque amongothers. The proposed laws after the World War II attached theinduction of the teaching of regional linguistics to the wholecountry at large in the learning systems(Beacco & Kenza 23). The teaching was first portrayed as a portion of the pedagogy visionattributed to the back grounds of the regional linguistics.
Inconclusion, the two countries exhibit a great diversity in thelinguistics and this is attributed to the minority, languages in theregion and the so called immigrants. The issue has increased morefrequently giving rise to the concept of multilingualism and itsdevelopment in the global realm. In spite of the two countries havingrepetition of commitments to multilingualism, the minimalacknowledgement of immigrant languages and the languages spoken inthe region is more attributed to the difference between the cultureand the utilitarian perspective of languages. With the provision ofabundant learning choices to the pupils, language learning optionsshould be influenced by the expected merits. The two forms oflanguages are significantly affected by the fact that they arewasteful in consideration. Research shows that the acquired utilityof the newly adopted languages remains very insignificant. The samecase applies even for some other languages such as Turkish and Arabicwhich are widely used across the world. Individuals who still havethe desire to study the minority languages, the immigrant or thelanguages used in the region are viewed as controlled by the culturalbased motivations while the studying of multilingualism by citizensappears undesirable.
2.The Critical Age Hypothesis in language acquisition. Evaluate theFactor of age in language development as well as other aspectsimportant for ultimate attainment.
Age together with other associated factors has a great influencewhich is attributed to language acquisition and development (Doughtyand Long 16).Veryminimal attention has been paid to the learning of second language inchildren adults. The issue of acquiring a new language in youngchildren has raised many differences with the acquisition of languagein middle aged adults. This has been achieved a after a clearcontrast between the two levels of language acquisition. The use oftwo languages and other learning outcomes have their consequences inthe grounds of language acquisition (Dörnyei 97). A littleinformation on language adoption issues is available. This includesdifferences in personalities displayed by children and not found inmature learners. We only have some basic knowledge about thedevelopment of literature in these adults as well as the children.
Studieson the children language learners were offered a special attention inthe ancient days since acquiring of the new language was beingintroduced as an area of inquiries. In addition to this, the systemsof education which included French invading Canada and theybilingualism for the children speaking Spanish in the United Stateswhere they were facilitated (Doughtyand Long 35).An increase in the renewal of the interests in this particulargeneration has been developed. This is attributed to the researchwork trying to figure out the inter-relation between the languagevariation and language instability which are observed in themultilingual beneficiaries (Goldstein 101). The main objective of theregenerated interests is to promote language efficiency. This isnecessary for the evaluation and intervention. In addition, theinterests are concerned with the vital issues that are necessitatedin the adoption of second language in children opposed to adultlearning.
Thisdiscussion is describing trend followed concerning the language IIlearning children by the use of questionnaires that are specificallyimportant to the child in contrast with second language adoption inadults and to oral linguistics opposed to literatures facilitation(Goldstein 163). Child bilingualism is always used to describe thelanguage II learners. The situation does not effect in a commonpopulation. The bilingual learners are advantaged to study the twolanguages in their early childhood studies while the second languagelearners have only one stabilized language before they commencelearning of the other language. The second language learners arecharacterized by typically speaking the LI language at home andembracing the user of LII at learning institutions (Doughtyand Long 76).
Theintroduction of the second language, its exposure, and itsdevelopment was noted by researchers in the early days (1990s). Theinformation was basically from the observation of the minority groupof children in an English teaching institution located in the UnitedStates. The languages spoken at home are restricted to the use ofnon-verbal cues, telegraphs, formulae and productive approach.
Thereis evident use of initial languages in the early stages by thechildren in the LII adoption environment. However, this stage is veryprecise since it requires a few days and the learners realize thatthe use of their indigenous language will not develop communicationin specific environments.
Thenon-verbal period is usually very short taking a few weeks but attimes it may have extensions taking a number of months. The littleaged children take a longer duration in this stage. Children in thisstage may provide utterances in the second language learning (LII) orcompletely fail to. The y embraces using of gestures in communicationand they may decide to be silent when involved in a group making useof the language.
Theutterances used by the LII children at first in English are either informulae or telegraphs(Doughtyand Long 114).Children in this situation are forced to rely on memorized phraseswhich must not be analyzed. In addition, they make use of thesimplest grammatical vocabularies.
Theeffects of initial language (LI) are clearly evident in secondlearning (LII) phonologies. The development of the LII relies on thefoundations of the LI phonetic chapter. A good example is the Englishdevelopment in the Spanish boundaries. The children aged betweenfour and seven are more equipped in the production of meaningfulvocabularies (Birdsong52).These phonemes are used in the two languages than the vocabulariesthat are only available in English. The effects of LII can be longlived. These influences can be found even in second language learner. Adults who begin to study the LII are more accurate than those whostudy it at an old age. Their voice projection with respect to thelanguage is highly enhanced by early studies. Children can improvetheir voicing by considering the use of stop consonants in thelanguage(Birdsong 72).The research has shown that children are quick in acquisition ofphonologies as compared to adults.
Theinitial language also has a great role in the building of the lexiconfor the children not only to achieve oral efficiency but also toimprove on basic performance while in the midst of majorities at thelearning institutions. Researchers show the vitality of the phonemeknowledge in literature facilitation. The bilinguals and the secondlanguage learners were unable to score the average for nonlinguisticstudies during the English sampling(Bialystok and Barry 301).However, the two learners had a score close to the average. Theseresults indicated that vocabulary understanding in the populations ofthe bilingual and second language (LII) learners as a proceduralprocess. However, the introduction of English did not significantlyalter the preservation of the phonemes in their minorities. Increasedembrace in monolinguals restrict the development bilingualism inchildren for the LI and the LII as well.
Theadoption of the morphosyntatic in the second languages also dependson the age differences between children and adults. Research on thefoundation of the morphosyntatic facilitation was conducted by someresearchers. This evaluated the common mistakes highlighted in thegrammar and syntactic forms. The purpose of this particularinvestigation was to find out whether the grammatical errors viewedin many children are associated with the inter-language behavior ortransferred from one generation to the other(Bialystok and Barry 257).Researchers came up with results that showed most grammaticalmistakes involved in speaking English to have originated fromuntraceable Spanish grounds. Some were transferred as a result ofmixed language studying.
Somedifferences among the initial and the second language childrenadoption have been figured out (Dörn,584).The populations portray a bigger portion of grammatical errors thanthe L1 students. In many cases the children aged between five andseven speak in English after acquiring it as a second language. TheEnglish learning institutions are therefore densely populated withthe second language learners who wish to improve on their academicperformances as well as the verbal learnt skills.
Byconsidering phonemes in particular, it is clear that the home basedSpanish English learners located at Miami had a least score incontrast to the children who had a complex test on the phonemesthroughout their academic life. A score that ranges within the setmonolingual standards usually occurred in the received than theproduced vocabularies. The duration taken by the second languagelearners to improve their performance within the set standards forindigenous speakers may be different depending on the part oflanguage evaluated on the standard measurements.
Personaldifferences rate the acquisition of language by the second languagelearner (Bialystok,127).In addition, the second language learners are subject to differencesdespite the ownership of similar learning facilities. Personaldifferences play a vital role in focusing in the second language andinitial language acquisition. This is a possible case since thesecond language learners have a great source of variations inlanguage adoption rather than the acquisition of the initiallanguage. The second language learners dominate the proficiency oflanguage during the acquisition. The minority group of childrenshifts from one language to the other. This involves mainly shiftingfrom the initial language to a secondary adopted language. The wholeprocedure is age dependent. The young growing children will show aquick and faster learning of phonemes as opposed to adults. Theperformance in speaking of the newly acquired language is also highin the young age than the adults (Bialystokand Barry132).Adults are likely to have a number of grammatical mistakes as well aspronunciation mistakes. It is therefore necessary to facilitatelearning of new languages at an early age.
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