Thedirect instruction method of teaching occurs when the teacher givesinstructions through lecture as the learners listen. It gives thelearners an opportunity to receive information directly from teachersso they can apply it cognitively. This method is an effective tool ofintroducing new information to students forming a foundation forfuture work (Davis & Arend, 2013).
Thefollowing a lecture method for direct instruction
Introductionto skill: In this case, the skill to be learned is listening andbeing able to identify different words that sound the same.
At the beginning of the lesson the teacher writes dozens of words with different meanings and maybe spelled differently but sounds the same.
The teacher then asks the students to use these words in a sentence (it is likely they will not be able to).
The teacher will then explain the specific words that may sound the same but with different meanings. He or she will write them in the blackboard for the learners to analyze them visually. The teacher will explain them and give examples in sentences for students to distinguish them.
Students will then participate in discussions.
The teacher will test the understanding of students by asking questions.
The teacher will provide a new list of words that sound alike. The learners will then be divided in groups to discuss and practice using these words.
The students will be tested using questions and answers.
Thisstep involves independent practice where the students will berequired to use the words and write sentences on their own.
Thisinvolves applying the skills beyond the class: the teacher will askthe students to observe words that sound alike out of the class andreport to class.
Inquirybased learning method
Inquirybased learning is a student centered method of learning, whichfosters a deep understanding of information. This method involvesstudents in making sense of activities by asking questions, exploringideas, and solving problems. It is a good method of teachingmathematics across all levels (Davis & Arend, 2013).
Thefollowing is a procedure of teaching mathematics using inquiry basedmethod of learning:
The class begins
The teacher gives out a sheet for the learners who want to present problems.
The students then writes solutions
The class reviews the solutions and validates them. They ask questions and discuss various methods of solving problems
When the entire class approves the solution, then another student presents a solution to another question and the cycle continues
In case the class does not reach a certain solution, the teacher and the entire class devise a way of solving the problem
The teacher may decide to present new problems of the same nature
If a new concept is introduced, the teacher conducts mini lecture where he or she involves the students in developing ideas of solving the problem
If the students have nothing to present or are stuck in solving a problem, they form groups where they explore means of tackling the problem
Finally, the groups present their proofs or solutions to the whole class. In case no group gets a solution, the instructor intervenes and provides a solution using various strategies.
Cooperativelearning is a type of learning where students work together ingroups. Students of different abilities are arranged in groups wherethey learn collaboratively. The groups enable learners to workcollaboratively to complete assigned tasks and meet a common goal.They utilize the resources and skills of each other to maximize theirlearning abilities (Davis & Arend, 2013).
Thefollowing is the format for cooperative learning:
Thefacilitator is responsible for forming teams rather than allowingstudents to choose their team members. If students are allowed toform their own teams, they are unlikely to diversify and the beststudents may cluster and leave out the weak ones to form groups ontheir own. The teacher may create groups randomly or form them basedon different abilities on academic performance. Depending on the sizeof the class, the teacher may form groups of 3-6 students.
Oncethe groups are formed, the teacher should assign different roles toeach and every member. These roles may be team leader, coordinator,double checker, recorder, and monitor. All these works together toensure the group is well organized and disciplined.
Eachmember of the group is expected to contribute and understandeverything presented by the group. To ensure the accountability ofevery member, the instructor gives individual tests based on what thegroup presented. Although these tests do not contribute much to thegrade, they help the students to understand everything presented inthe group.
Theteams are also made responsible for ensuring that non contributors donot get credit. This ensures that all students attend the groupmeetings and discuss whatever is needed for the group.
Finally,the teacher should help students to learn collaboratively and providemeans of conflict resolution.
Davis,J. R., & Arend, B. (2013). Facilitatingseven ways of learning: A resource for more purposeful, effective,and enjoyable college teaching.Sterling, Va: Stylus.