Kinesio Tape Application Techniques

KINESIO TAPE APPLICATION TECHNIQUES 12

KinesioTape Application Techniques

KinesioTape Application Techniques

Theprevalence of low back pain (LBP) has been quite high across theglobe with research showing that as many as 70-85% of the worldpopulation get to experience the problem at one point of their lives[1-5]. Of particular note is the fact that it affects women and menin equal proportions with the onset being from the age of 30 to 60years old [6]. Like other health problems, LBP has devastatingeffects on the economy of any country particularly considering itslimitation of activity and increasing work absenteeism [1,7-9], whichresults in reduced productivity and increased expenditure onhealthcare [10].

Asmuch as immense research has been done on the ailment, it is notclear what causes LBP in 85-95% of the cases [1,6,11]. Nevertheless,the rest of the cases may be credited to certain conditions includingmetabolic bone disease, infections, neoplasm, degenerativeconditions, referred pain, osteoporotic fracture, or even psychogenicpain [6, 12-15]. As much as it is common for the ailment to recur,acute LBP is seen as primarily a self-limiting ailment in a largeproportion off patients that is usually cured in 4 weeks time [3,16].This does not undermine the fact that the ailment becomes chronic inapproximately 10-40 percent of the patients.

Inspite of the numerous efforts at coming up with a standarddefinition, it is unfortunate that scholars are yet to accomplishthis task. On the same note, the social, psychological,neurophysiological and pathoanatomical factors pertaining to thepatients affect the classification of chronic LBP [3,19,17]. A largenumber of the guidelines, nevertheless suggest three varying groupsof the diagnosis of this ailment [18-21]. First, there is thecategory that includes patients who have pathologies such as tumors,fractures and inflammation [19-22]. This is seen as the most seriousform of the ailment and accounts for only 1% of LBP cases. Second,there is the group that incorporates patients who have radicular painas a result of irritation of the nerve root, and which accounts foraround 5 percent of the cases. This category of patients experiencesreflex, motor and sensory changes in the lower extremity thatcorresponds to the nerve root that is affected. Third, there is thecategory that takes up the remaining proportion of patients (94%)categorized as non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) [19-22]. Evidently,this would be the most prevalent challenge that physical therapistsface in the outpatient practices across the globe [23]. Indeed, over50 percent of referrals to the outpatient physical therapy departmentsuffer from this category of LBP [24,25]. About 65% of patients inthis category may experience pain after undergoing treatment for ayear [26], as well as residual substantial limitation in the level ofactivities following a year of acute episode [27].

Subsequently,this category is the cause of immense negative impacts on theeconomies of Western countries as a result of sick leave [28,29].Further, chronic NSLBP results impairment of quality of life,limitation of mobility and long-term disability, with its impact onthe economy being felt in the increased rate of absenteeism [30,34].On the same note, there are direct medical costs incurred, as well aslost productivity of workers, which add to the economic burdenemanating from NSLBP [35,36]. Scholars have noted that the largestproportion of direct medical costs were primary care, inpatientservices, PT and pharmacy.

Managementof NSLBP

Alarge number of literary works have outlined numerous managementpossibilities for NSLBP [37-39]. First, there is the physiotherapytreatment that is composed of a wide range of intervention strategiessuch as manual therapy, behavioral cognitive therapy, manipulation,exercise therapy, electrotherapy and education therapies [37-41]. Nevertheless, none of the common interventions would effectively curethe ailment.

Further,there is Kinesio Taping (KT) technique, which was crafted byKenzoKase in the 70s and aimed at lowering pain, supporting theaffected regions, as well as relaxing the muscles [7,38,42,43]. Thetechnique has been utilized as a substitute for athletic taping,whose design allows it to mimic the approximate weight and thicknessof skin and elasticity [38,42-44]. Further the tape is latex-free andincorporates 100% heat activated acrylic adhesive [7,30,38,42-44].Its elasticity is underlined by the fact that it may stretch p to120-140 percent of the original length, with the 100% cotton fibersenabling fast drying and evaporation [7,30,38,42-44]. KT performsdifferent functions such as increase in the vascular and lymphaticflow, muscular function normalization, pain alleviation, as well ascorrecting the likely joint misalignments [7,30,38,42-44].

  1. Significance of the study

Asnoted, NSLBP comes as one of the most prevalent problems facingphysical therapists in outpatient practice across the globe [23].Indeed, over half of referrals in outpatient physical therapydepartment suffer from the ailment [24]. As much as there existssignificant deficiency of recent and accurate data estimating theprevalence of the ailment among the Saudi population, a significantproportion of the population suffers from the NSLBP [45]. Forinstance, research has shown about 18.8 percent of the population inal-Qaasem region in Saudi Arabia and 26.2% of Jeddah suffer from theailment. Further, work-related LBP is thought to be a considerablymore significant issue in varied occupations such as healthcareworkers (65.7%) and teachers (63.8%) [47,48,5]. On the same note, alarge number of Saudi patients with LBP have an extremely high non-adherence level to physiotherapy, which may be an indication ofthe necessity for home treatment that is considerably easier.

Thisstudy determined the effect of varying application of KT as a newform of treatment for disability and symptoms among patients ofNSLBP. In spite of the increasing utilization of kinesio tape in thetreatment of varied musculoskeletal disorder, there is littlepublished research pertaining to varying application techniques andthe manner in which KT relates to the enhancement of performance inindividuals suffering from the ailment [51].

Inthe recent times, systematic reviews carried out by Morris et al.,(2013) underlined the deficiency of moderated evidence pertaining toclinical effectiveness of KT for varied outcomes including functionaldisability, muscle endurance and pain for patients suffering fromchronic LBP in comparison to usual care [52]. Further, Parreira etal., (2014) underlined the fact that there existed no evidencesupporting the utilization of KT in different musculoskeletalconditions such as LBP [53].

Nevertheless,these reviews have their conclusions founded on clinical trials thatutilized variable methods of study and tape techniques, had high biaspossibility and examined a small number of patients [44]. Inaddition, a large proportion of these clinical trials made use of KTin isolation, unlike the real world where psychotherapists use italongside other treatment techniques for LBP in an effort to prolongand enhance the effect of alleviation of pain and disability amongpatients [38]. Lastly, few studies make use of objective measures inexamining the effectiveness of varying application techniques of KTon functional disability, pain and lumbar mobility.

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