Including X-ray



Photographsand recordings are part of the evidences that can be admissible incourts of law, but there are rules and procedures that should befollowed. Photographs include X-ray films, still photographs, motionpictures, and videotapes (Garland, 2011). Recordings include words,letters, or numbers that are set down in typing, photographing,electronic recording, or handwriting (Boulder County Bar Association,2014). However, the recordings and photographs must be relevant forthem to be admissible (Garland,2011). The basic steps followed when introducing photographs andrecordings in the courtroom include the show of relevance, laying thefoundation, and satisfying the best evidence rules (Garland, 2011).However, there are other procedures and requirements that areconsidered in this paper.

TheX-ray photographs are only accepted in court if they are introducedto court by an expert witness (Garland, 2011). Similar to otherrecordings and photographs, the accuracy of X-ray photographs shouldbe verified.

Aduplicate of the photograph or a recording is admissible in the sameway as the original recordings of photographs. However, thisadmissibility can be denied in case the genuineness of the materialhas been questioned or circumstances dictate that it would be unfairto present a duplicate as evidence (BCBA, 2014).

Therule of admissibility of other evidence contents states that theoriginal photograph or recordings may replaced by other records incase the original have been destroyed, cannot be obtained using theavailable judicial processes, in possession of the opponent, or lacksclose relation to the issue in question (BCBA, 2014).

Therule of public records states that the contents of a given officialrecord may be proven by a copy that has been certified as correct bya witness who has managed to compare it with the original. Inaddition, the rule of the summary states that summary of thephotographs or recordings may be admissible in case such records orphotographs are many and the originals cannot be convenientlypresented in the court (BCBA, 2014). In conclusion, photographs andrecordings are reliable sources of evidence, but their admissibilityis influenced by pre-determined rules.


BoulderCounty Bar Association (2014). Bar media manual: The rule ofevidence. BoulderCounty Bar Association.Retrieved January 8, 2015, from

Garland,N. (2011). Criminalevidence (6thed.).New York, NY: McGraw Hill.