HUMAN TRAFFICKING LITERATURE REVIEW 5
HumanTrafficking Literature Review
HumanTrafficking Literature Review
Giventhe fundamental nature of human trafficking and the magnitude of itseffects in the contemporary human society, it is inevitable thatvolumes of literary works would be written in an effort to exploreits varied elements. These particularly include the causes,strategies that have been put in place to combat the vice and theireffectiveness, as well as how to effectively tackle the problem inboth the short-term and the long-term. Of particular note is the factthat the proliferation of the problem has emanated from a myriad offactors that mostly signal at complacency on the part of state andnon-state actors in tackling the problem.
Itis a well known fact that human trafficking is a prominent issueacross the globe attracting the attention of varying countries as aresult of the devastating effects that it has on human being.However, questions have been raised regarding the gender nature ofthis issue particularly considering that a large number of victims,willing and unwilling, are women and young girls. Doung (2012)underlines the danger of attempting to address human traffickingproblem without proper comprehension of the changing context ofmigration and labor in the rapidly globalised world. Indeed, such arestricted examination of the problem would mean that it is seen as acrime rather than an end-result of varied interconnected socialfactors. Such comprehension would be deficient of the capacity toestablish progressive political change unless the analysis takes on ahuman rights and gender perspective (Frank & Simons, 2013). Asmuch as women may form a large part of the victims of humantrafficking, Duong states that it would be wrong to show women asvulnerable since such an action would entrench vulnerability as afemale identity, while covering the root causes and agency in theproblem. Nevertheless, this does not negate the fact that women arevictims of discrimination, which ultimately determines when and wherethey can migrate, work and travel, as well as make their owndecisions. Indeed, such discrimination would also determine how andwhether her rights as a woman would be respected. It is thisdiscrimination that would determine the opportunities available for awoman in a particular place, alongside the economic policies,conflicts, as well as other political, social and economicmodifications.
Inspite of the significant nature of human trafficking as a policyissue in the contemporary human society, few countries have managedto enact laws and regulations that allow for effective combating ofthe problem. Nevertheless, the United States among other destinationcountries have focused on the criminalization of human trafficking.Even in countries where the prosecutorial element has taken root, thedeficiency of uniformity in law enforcement still causes the problemto thrive. It is noted that individuals and entities that benefitfrom the exploitation of the vulnerable labor obtained via humantrafficking have the capacity to substitute labor pools, as well ascome up with new markets through flexible movement to low enforcementjurisdictions. Indeed, as much as law enforcement increases the risksand costs pertaining to doing business, the transnational blackmarket participants often adapt and relocate their businesses toareas that have lax or inexistent enforcement. Ngwe and Elechi (2012)support this notion and state a large number of criminal groupsfunction in poor countries that have few or no economicopportunities, while also finding fertile grounds in countries thathave corrupt and weak governments, deficient of laws and usuallyexperiencing social and political conflicts. They note that there isa positive connection between political corruption and organizedcrime, with human smuggling and trafficking being closely linked toother criminal networks such as document forging, arms trafficking,drug trafficking, money laundering and bribery of governmentofficials (Frank & Simons, 2013). In ending this problem, it isimperative that the varied world governments take a concerted effortto eradicate corruption, world poverty, halt armed conflicts andenvironmental degradation, slow down population explosion a, cancelinternational debts for nations that are incapable of paying, as wellas get governments to implement the promises they make pertaining tocombating the problem (Frank & Simons, 2013).
Incombating the problem, countries have particularly adopted legalresponses which involve a three-prong framework focused on preventingtrafficking, protecting the trafficked victims and prosecutingtraffickers. This, however, is only done in theory as, practically,the emphasis is on the prosecution of traffickers and protection ofthe victims to a lesser extent. Addressing human trafficking as anact may account for the consequences of the problem but there is thetendency to overlook its causes, or rather the broader socio-economicconditions feeding the problem (Chuang, 2006). In this regard, it isimperative that other root causes of the problem are addressed priorto prosecuting the perpetrators and protecting the victims. Indeed,it is imperative that the problem is addressed within the broadersocioeconomic context sp as to connect the underlying causes oftrafficking to the violations of cultural, economic and socialrights.
Chuang,J (2006). Beyond a Snapshot: Preventing Human Trafficking in theGlobal Economy. Indiana journal of Global legal Studies
Duong,K. A (2012). Human Trafficking in a Globalized World: Gender Aspectsof the Issue and Anti-Trafficking Politics. Journal of Research inGender Studies , Vol. 2, No. 1
Frank,R.W & Simons, B.A (2013). National Law enforcement in aGlobalised World: The Case of Human Trafficking. American PoliticalScience Association
Ngwe,J.E & Elechi, O.O (2012). Human Trafficking: Modern Day Slaveryin the 21stCentury. CanadianForeign Policy,12(3), 90-VIII.