History of Jails, And Phases of Architectural Design Number

Historyof Jails, And Phases of Architectural Design

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Historyof Jails, And Phases of Architectural Design

Question1, History of Jails/prisons in America

Jails,prisons, or corrections as referred today, has become an importantelement of the justice structure in the U S, as well as other nationsglobally. Jails are one of the sanctions that are available to dealwith people who commit criminal offenses. In other words, a jail is aplace set for confinement of people who are convicted with a crime.In the United States, prisons rapidly came into use as a form ofcriminal penalty before the American Revolution era (Schmalleger &ampSmykla, 2015).

Jailscame as the first correctional facilities, and came in differentforms such as pits, caves, or even tying the convicts to a tree. In16thand 17thcenturies, endorsements for criminal behavior took place in publicplaces, as they were designed to shame people. The prisons were theplaces that people were held awaiting their trial, and convicts wereall held in local prisons. At this period, there was the structure ofthe trial product house of correction. In the 18th century, therecame the issue of imprisonment with hard labor. During this century,there came the construction of ‘Panopticon’, which allowed forcentralized prison building. In 1799, the enactment of thePenitential Act led to the building of one inmate per cell. Come the19thcentury, state prisons were constructed, and there was the electionof central control of prisons by prison commissioner. By theconclusion of the nineteenth century, it was agreed that young peopleshould be in separate jails. In the 20thcentury in the United States prisons, have undergone designing,financing, built and run by private companies can into existence, andsince its establishment, jails has continued to undergo numerousevolution but has been maintained as key parts of the Americanjustice system (Schmalleger &amp Smykla, 2015).

Question2, Phases of an architectural design

Thearchitectural design is the concept that ideally focuses on theelements of a structure, unifying them into a coherent functionalwhole. This falls into different but essential phases. Architecturaldesign is divided into different phases. Phase 1, is the schematicdesign,which involves collecting information and putting them into sketchesfor better visualization. Phase 2 is the designdevelopment,which entails modification of the sketches into the desired design bythe client. Constructiondocumentis the phase 3 of the design, then there is the phase 4, bidding,and the last phase is the constructionadministration (Lasten&amp Pizam, 2013).All the phases are implemented to ensure smooth as well assatisfactory completion of any construction project or a renovation.

References

Schmalleger,F., &amp Smykla, J. O. (2015). Corrections in the 21st century (7thed.). New York,

NY:McGraw-Hill Education.

Lasten,E. F., &amp Pizam, A. (2013). A Blueprint/Model for Planning andDesigning Staged-

AuthenticHeritage Attractions.&nbspJournalOf Hospitality &amp Tourism,&nbsp11(2),1-21.