Goal Attainment



Studentshaving learning problems should be treated differently in order tohelp them in acquiring knowledge just like other students withoutdisabilities. Tutors have to ensure these students are successfulthrough using strategies that realize their IEP goals. The aim ofthis paper is to discuss techniques used in determining the right IEPgoals for intellectual disabled (ID) students, strategies used withthese students, and techniques used in monitoring students’progress. The writing will be based on an interview held with ateacher of ID students.

Indetermining appropriate IEP goals for ID students, different methodscan be used according to the teacher. One of the methods entailsreviewing. In this case, available information of the student isanalyzed. Such information includes performance logs, schooldocumentation, special services files, permanent record files, andmarks. Interviewing is another method that can be used in determiningappropriate IEP goals for ID students (Martin,2009). In this case, different individuals can be talked to in orderto get valuable information. Such people include parents of thestudents, past and current teachers of the students, relevant serviceproviders, and student themselves. Interviewing can be done throughself-assessments, learning logs, response journals, andquestionnaires. Another method entails observing. In this method,listening, watching and examining work of student and monitoring ofresponses to the instructions given are significant sources ofassessment. Different tools can be utilized in documentingobservation, which include functional assessments, video or audiorecordings, portfolios, work samples, and rating scales. In addition,another method that can be used is testing. Testing can either beinformal or formal and can include various tests such ascriterion-referenced tests, quizzes, diagnostic skill inventories,and norm referenced tests (Martin,2009).

Theteacher was of the opinion that different strategies are used with IDstudents. One of the strategies entails breaking down the learningtasks into minute steps. In this case, every learning task becomesintroduced step by step. This is critical since it helps inpreventing students from being overwhelmed. Another strategy involvesmodifying the teaching approach. Instead of using abstract lecturesand verbal directions, tutors use the hands-on approach (Cohen&ampSpenciner,2009). The hands-on approach is better with the ID students comparedto abstract explanations because it helps them to have an experiencedlearning. The use of visual aids is another strategy used with the IDstudents. The use of visual aids is critical since it helps studentsunderstand the behavior that is expected of them. The use of visualaids may include using graphs, pictures, and charts. Besides, anotherstrategy that can be used with the ID students includes providingimmediate feedback. Students with ID need the use of immediatefeedback because it helps them in making a connection amid theirconduct and the response of the teacher. Failure to deliver animmediate feedback makes it cumbersome in forming a connectionbetween causes and effects, leading to students missing a learningpoint. When these strategies are utilized, students are verysuccessful in accomplishing IEP goals since they are capable ofcapturing whatever teachers want them to learn. For instance, inlearning a certain behavior, a tutor can use immediate feedback,which can help the ID students in successfully getting the behaviorright. This may be critical in the attainment of their IEP goals.

Theteacher provided that it is critical to monitor the progress ofstudents towards the attainment of their goals. One of the methodsthat can be used in the monitoring of progress is providing tests andquizzes to students. Through providing tests and quizzes to IDstudents, it will be possible to know how much progress the studentshave made. Tests and quizzes provide a significant monitoring methodof progress since they offer a quantifiable data, which can beutilized in comparing different students. Another method ofmonitoring progress of ID students towards the attainment of theirgoals entails performance assessments. These are critical since theymake students demonstrate a task instead of answering questions. Forinstance, students may be required to carry out a research on aprovided topic. Performance assessments are considered vital sincethey make students carry out tasks that are connected to the realworld situations. Another method entails the use of portfolios andjournals. Portfolios usually contain students’ work portfolios canaid students in identifying improvement areas and offer a summativeview of students’ progress. On the other hand, journals provide arecord of work done by students and indicate achievement and requiredareas of growth. Furthermore, standardized tests can be used inmeasuring progress. Standardized tests can be utilized in measuringprogress over a long period. In case a student is not makingsatisfactory progress towards the goals, the tutor should change thestrategy used in teaching the student (Martin,2009). This is important because one strategy may be more effectivecompared to another. For instance, in case the tutor was using visualaids in teaching, he can change the strategy and use hands-onapproach. Besides, the tutor can combine two strategies in case astudent does not make satisfactory progress towards the attainment ofhis goals.

AnIEP drives the teacher’s lesson and effective instructiontechniques since it provides individualized goals and how to attainthese goals. As such, the teacher must consider the IEP in designinghis lesson plans. These lesson plans must be effective in helping thestudents achieve progress since regular reports of the students mustbe submitted concerning the students’ IEP goals as required by IDEAof 2004 (Westwood &ampAustralian Council for Educational Research,2009). Besides, since IEP provides additional services and the meansto achieve them, they drive the lesson plan of the teacher sincetutor must provide for the extra services. In addition, since theeducation provider needs to provide teaching according to the needsof the students he is tutoring, IEP is seen to drive the lesson planbecause the teacher must provide effective learning depending withthe different needs of the students. Furthermore, since the tutor issupposed to indicate the method of assessing his students based onthe needs in a lesson plan, the IEP is seen to drive the lessonplans.

Thegoals provided by the teacher were to acquire reading skills by weeksix through the teacher’s guidance and to achieve writing skills byweek 12 under the guidance of the teacher. Looking at the two goals,they are specific because they are written in clear language, whichcan be understood by people. The goals are not measurable becausethey do not offer how student achievement would be measured. Besides,they are achievable since they indicate how the students will developthe skills. They are relevant since they will have positive changeson the students. On the other hand, the goals are time-relatedbecause they indicate the time within which they can be attained. Incase I was an educator, I would change these goals in order to bemeasurable since the progress towards the achievement of the goals isrealized through measurement of the progress.


Cohen,L. G., &amp Spenciner, L. J. (2009).&nbspTeachingstudents with mild and moderate disabilities: Research-basedpractices.Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.

Martin,L. C. (2009).&nbspStrategiesfor teaching students with learning disabilities.Thousand Oaks, Calif: Corwin Press.

Westwood,P. S., &amp Australian Council for Educational Research.(2009).&nbspWhatteachers need to know about students with disabilities.Camberwell, Vic: ACER Press.