Global Terrorism

GLOBAL TERRORISM 9

GlobalTerrorism

GlobalTerrorism

Terrorismis a global challenge,involvingactsof violenceintendedat inflictingglobal terrorbydeliberatelytargeting ordisregardingthesafetyofnon-combatants. Theseactsof are perpetuatedby religious,ideological orpoliticaldifferencesandemployedby (semi-) clandestinepersons,statesorgroupactors,foridiosyncratic,politicalorcriminalreasons.Terrorism employsunlawfulviolenceorthreatsof aggressionto inculcatefear,with intentionsof intimidatingorcoercinggovernments,societies,civilianpopulationsoranysegmentthereof in pursuitof their (terrorists)goals(Lutz&amp Lutz, 2013). Intensifiedconcernsabout terrorism arederivedfrom theterrorist attacksof eleventh September 2001, andsubsequentterrorist activitiesin Istanbul, Riyadh, Casablanca, London, andMumbai among otherareas.Intensiveestablishmentoftherootcausesof terrorism is imperativein discerning underlying conditionsof terrorism, as wellas equippingindividuals with betterwaysof combatingterrorism. Terrorism is an emotive andcomplextopicsince itcombinesnumerousaspectsof humanexperience,suchas philosophy,politicsmilitarystrategiesandreligion,andarousestremendousfeelingin caseof occurrence.Since itis a diverseandcomplexphenomenon,allits manifestationneedsto be understoodin its contextandspecificcauses(Hoffman&amp Reinares, 2014).

Thispaperexemplifiesglobal terrorism, exploringvariousdebatesandmodelsthat ariseregardingterrorism andits typologies. Among theseincludetheelementsthat are consideredto constituteterrorist activities,perpetrators of terrorism, as wellas thecausesof terrorism. Understandingterrorism andits typologies will be imperativein equippinggovernmentandsocietieswith appropriatemethodsof combatingterrorism.

TerrorismandOtherFormsof Crime

Terrorismisdescribedby its strategy andtactics a crimeandunjustified reactionto oppressionandan unwarrantable abomination.Itis an asymmetrical formof conflict,oftensecretivein nature,offeringtheopponentswith nodefiniteorganizationto fightagainst ordeter.Thepoliticalnatureof terrorism, togetherwith its characteristicsof usingviolenceto resolveideological differencesmakeit belikenedto conventionalwar.However,terrorismcontrastsconventionalwar,in thatwarisa toolanda meansto an end,which has reasonableobjectivesto beattained(Lutz&amp Lutz, 2013). On theotherhand,terrorism is fundamentallysymbolicratherthan a meansto an end.Terrorism is communicativemodeto thetargeted populacebuthas noanticipationof realizingthegoalsitwassetto achieve.Secondly,conventionalwarfareis legallydeclaredby a state,unlike terrorist activitiesthat are illegally declaredby sub-national organizations.Additionally, terrorism, unlike conventional wars, violatesallrulesgoverningconventionalwarfare.Rulesandlawsgoverningconventionalwarfaregrantimmunityto civiliansagainst attacksandprohibitstakingof non-combatants as hostages(Hoffman&amp Reinares, 2014). Additionally, theyimposerulesandregulationswhich governthetreatmentof capturedorsurrenderedprisonersof warandrecognizeneutralityandrightsof impartialstatesandcitizensduring waroutbreaks(Lutz&amp Lutz, 2013).

Terrorismdoesnot prescribeto theseestablishedrulesandregulationsgoverningconventionalwarittargets thecivilianandothernon-combatants to inflictandspreadfear.Additionally, terrorism takes non combatants as hostages, and doesnot ascribe to rules and regulations governing the treatment ofhostages. Terrorism activitiesare closerto warcrimesthan legitimatewarssince mostterroristsarenot explicitly givensoldiers’statusbuthavegreaterleewayto commitmoreviolencethan eventhesoldiers(Lutz&amp Lutz, 2013). However,terrorism is differentfrom ordinarycrimesb y thevirtueof theunderlying motivations.Terrorism is meantto inflictterrormainlyforpoliticalreasons,whereas,criminalsterrorizewith theaimof extractingtangibleassets ormoneyfrom their victims.However,terroristsmay undertake‘ordinary’criminalactivitiessuchas extortion,fraud,bankrobberyamong others as a meanof fundingtheir terrorist activities(Lutz&amp Lutz, 2013). Despite theestablisheddifferencesbetween terrorism andotherformsof crimes,mostgovernmentsemploytheinstitutedcriminalinterventionproceduressuchas thejudicial,penalandlegalsystemsto interveneagainst terrorism. However,thecriminalization of terrorism as an intervening measuredealsonly with theafter-effects of terrorism, ratherthan resolvingtheunderlying causes(Lutz&amp Lutz, 2013).

MotivationtoTerrorism

Causesof terrorism are varied,with nolonefactorestablishedas thecauseof terrorist activitiesamong individuals.However,scholarshavebroadly categorizedthecausesof terrorism based on theunderlying motivationto engagein terrorist activities.Thesebroadmotivators to terrorism includepsychologicalperspectives,strategicandideological causes.Psychologicalpointsof viewascribe terrorism activitiesto individuals’reasons(Hoffman&amp Reinares, 2014). Accordingto thispointof view,terroristsare motivatedto engagein terrorist activitiesby hateof therulingclassandtheir desireforthatpower.Forinstance,theAuguste vailantebombedtheFrench chambersof deputyandexplainedhis motivationas theincreasedhatredforthemiddleclass.Vailanteexplainedthathewantedto destroytheFrench economicandsocialsuccessby taintingitwith terrorandviolence,which rosefrom his increasedhatredfortherulingandmiddleclasses(Hoffman&amp Reinares, 2014).

Ideologicalperspectivesacclaimthatdifferencesfrom humansocialandeconomicaspectsare themajormotivators of terrorism. Theseincludetheprinciples,aimgoalsandvaluesby which thesocietyidentifieswith andincludefactorslike religiousdifferences,politicaldifferencesamong others. Among theterrorist groupsmotivatedby ideological differencesincludetheAl- Qaeda, theTaliban, the Islamic state in Iraq and Syria (ISIS), among otherterrorist groups(Hoffman&amp Reinares, 2014). Strategicperspectivesacclaimthatterrorism is a logicalextensionto failuresin politics,wheregroupsof peopleresort to terrorism whentheyfailto wingovernment`sattentionto their plight.From thisperspective,terrorism is as a resultof logicalanalysisof goalsandobjectivesof a groupandan estimateof thelikelihoodof gainingvictorywhentheyresultto terrorism. Accordingto thisperspective,terrorist groupsbelievethatthetraditionalmeansof oppositionwould yieldnofruits,hencetheir engagementin terrorism as an alternativeto traditionalformsof terrorism (Hoffman&amp Reinares, 2014).

Causesof Terrorism

Religionandreligiousdifferencesare believedto be themajorcausesof terrorism in themodernworld.Thoughreligionis not theonlycause of terrorism,ithas playeda significantrolein motivatinggroupsto terrorism since religionis amongst thefundamentalbeliefsthatmanidentifieswith.Amongtheancientterroristgroupsresultingfrom religiousdifferencesincludedthethugsof ancientIndia, whoterrorizedin thenameof their god“Kali”, theJewish Zealots whocutRoman throatsto combattheir occupationof Israel.Additionally, in the1930s, theZionist bombedtheBritish Mandate Palestine to createa Jewish state.Accordingto report,religiousextremism is theleadingcauseof terrorism in themodernworld,overtakingnationalextremism (Hoffman&amp Reinares, 2014). Therehas beenfive-fold increasein religion-related terrorist activitiessince the9/11 terroristsattacks,which is attributedto four maingroups,ISIS, Taliban in Afghanistan, Boko Haram in Nigeria andtheal-Qaeda.TheISIS has engagedin terrorism activitiesseekingto establishan all- Islam statein Iraq andSyria, whereas,Boko Haram seeksto establishan Islamic State in Nigeria (Lutz&amp Lutz, 2013).Thisis similaramongst theTaliban andtheal-qaeda, Islamic fundamentalism groupsseekingto establishIslamic statesin their areasof operations.Thisformof terrorism is moreviolentthan othertypesowingto thereligiousdoctrines,which encouragesheightenedviolencethrough a promiseof rewardsin theafterlife.Thepromiseof rewardsin theafterlifesupportssuicidebombingsandotherviolentterrorists,which are inevitablydifficultto defendagainst(Hoffman&amp Reinares, 2014).

Politicalextremists,suchas lackof politicalinclusiveness in countriesorobjectionsagainst establishedpoliticalordersmay predisposeindividualsto joiningterrorist groups.Stateswith authoritariangovernmentslackavenuesto dissentpoliticalideologies,oftenleadingto violence,as a frustrated expressionof politicaldifferences.Examplesof politically fueledterrorism activitiesincludeactivitiesof politicalIslam, which isseenas a reactionto politicaloppressionof oppressivegovernments(Lutz&amp Lutz, 2013). PoliticalIslam targets oppressivegovernmentsandits westernsupporters,since, in terrorists`view,theWest supportsoppressiveregimesforpersonalinterests.Theimplicationhereis thatWestern governmentshaveessentiallymadethemselves targetsof terrorism, owingto their supportof repressiveregimes(Lutz&amp Lutz, 2013).

Othercausesof terrorism s thesocial,economicstatusof individuals.Therelativeresourcedeprivationandthesubsequentlackof upwardmobilityin thesocial-economic setuphas for a long time predisposed individuals to terrorist activities.Through globalization, thepoorhavegainedan acuteawarenessof their situation,includingthecauseof their situation(Hoffman&amp Reinares, 2014). Thisleadsvictimization, frustrationsandhumiliationof theeducatedandunemployedindividuals.Theestablishedeconomicdifferencesleadto tensionandhostilitiestoward thedevelopedandeconomically well-up countries,oftendevelopinginto terrorism. Othercausesof terrorism includeaccidentalguerrilla,whereterroristsmoveto areaswith poorgovernance orisriddenwith conflictsandusestheareaas a havento spreadterrorism. Additionally, discriminationcan causeterrorism, wherebythediscriminatedindividualsfrom terrorist groupsto speakagainst discrimination.In addition,ethno-nationalism causesterrorism, wherebyindividualsformterrorist groupsto pushtheir desiresof breakingawayfrom establishedgovernmentsandcreatetheir state(Lutz&amp Lutz, 2013).

Conclusion

Asaforementioned, terrorism involvesactsof violenceintendedto inflictglobal terrorby deliberatelytargeting ordisregardingthesafetyof non-combatants. Theseactsare motivatedby religious,ideological orpoliticaldifferencesandimplementedby (semi-) clandestinepersons,statesorgroupactors,foridiosyncratic,politicalorcriminalreasons.Terrorism employsunlawfulviolenceorthreatsof aggressionto inflictfear,with intentionsof intimidatingorcoercinggovernments,societiesorcivilianpopulationsin pursuitof their (terrorists)goals.Terrorism is motivatedby psychologicalandideological perspectives,with factorssuchas religiousextremism, politicalextremism, discriminationandsocial-economicdeprivations,beingthemaincausesof terrorism.

Othercausesof discriminationincludeEthno-nationalism andaccidentalguerilla, whereterroristsuseareaswith fallengovernmentsas thehavenfortheir terrorist activities.Fromtheabove,itis clearthatpovertydoesnot leadto terrorism. However,relativedeprivationandstructuralinequalitiesin nationalandglobal levels andmerge with othercausesto motivateindividualsin formingorjoiningterrorist groups.Understandingthecausesandmotivators of terrorism is imperativein understandingterrorists,which is importantin combatingglobal terrorism, promotingpeacefulcoexistencein theglobe.

References

Hoffman,B. &amp Reinares, F., (2014). Theevolution of the global terrorist threat: From 9/11 to Osama binLaden`s death.New York: Columbia University Press

Lutz,J. &amp Lutz, B., (2013). GlobalTerrorism(3rded).London:Routledge