Genetic Engineering

GENETIC ENGINEERING 10

GeneticEngineering

InstitutionalAffiliations

GeneticEngineering

Geneticengineeringis a generictermthat isusedwhenreferringto themanipulationof organism’snucleic acid.Theorganismswhosegenes havebeenalteredby artificialmethodsfora designedeffectare referredto asgenetically modifiedorganism.Therecombinant technology in DNA (rDNA) is usedto removea particularDNA sequencefrom an organismandin theprocessintroduceitinto anotherorganism,therefore,alteringthegenotype (i.e. thephenotype) of therecipient(Shanks, 2005).Thegeneticprocessof introducinga foreignagentto anotherparticularorganismiscommonlyknownas cloning. In fact,cloning andgeneticengineeringare two termsusedsynonymously in thefieldof healthcare.

Theprocessesof cloning are requiredto achieveseveralthings.First,theymust studytheexpression,regulation,andarrangementof genes. Second,thecloning techniquesmust modifygenes to yielda transformedproductof proteins.Third,themodificationof genes must eithersuppressorenhancea particularproductsothata deliberateoutcomeisachieved.Next,cloning must introducegenes from one organismto thenextin an attemptto createa transgenic organism.Still,geneticmodificationmust makemultiplecopiesof thesegmentin a nuclearacidartificially. Finally,cloning must createanorganismthat exhibitalteredordesirablecharacteristics(Department of Health, 2008).

Allthegenes in an organismmakeup a genome. Genes are nucleic acidsegmentthatcodefora particularpolypeptide. Theyaremadeof nucleotide sequencesthat combinethree nucleotides codefora singleamino acid.Genes are transcribedto mRNA, which are latertranslatedto polypeptide sequences.In fact,a processknownas operon achievestheregulationof thegenes. Itis worthnotingthatchromosomal DNA is not theonlymaterialin genetics,butbacteria alsopossesselementsof geneticextrachromosomal calledplasmids (Shanks, 2005). Theseplasmids are not necessarilyforthesurvival,buttheyoffersomeadvantagesto thecellconnectedto it.Plasmids assumea circularshapeof DNA molecules,which can replicate independently.Theyalsocontainthenecessarygeneticmachineryforinstance,replication originthat allowstheir autonomouspropagationin theyeastorbacterial host.In a bacteria cell,there might be multipleorsinglecopiesof thesameplasmid. In thatstructure,theplasmid is presentin feworone copiesper singlecell,andtheyreplicate (under stringentcontrol)onceper divisionof a cellas itis with thebacterial chromosomes.

Geneticengineeringisappliedin manyfieldsincludingagriculture,research,industrialbiotechnology, andmedicine.Theprocessaltersthegeneticstructureof an organismby removingtheheritagematerialorintroducingDNA that has beenmanufacturedoutside theorganismdirectlyinto thecellorthehost.Later,theDNA introducedis hybridized orfusedwith thehost(Murphy, 2008).

GeneticEngineering Impacts on Healthcare Professionals and Organization

Accordingto Burke (2007), therapidtranslationgenomic andgeneticscienceto theclinical carehas a tremendousimpactforthehealthprofessionalsandhealthcare organizationwith limitedpreparationin genetics.Healthcare professionalsare at theforefrontof thepatientcare,andtheyrequireexpandingtheir skillsandknowledgein tailoring genomic andgeneticinformationaimedat testingfortheirpatients.Havingtheknowledgewill assisttheprofessionalsin understandingthebenefitsandlimitationemergingfrom thegenetictests.Thisenablesthehealthcare professionalsto makedecisionsthat are of benefitto thepatientsandthehealthcare organization.Geneticengineeringmakesthenursesto beinvolvedin practicesettingthat identifiesthepatientswhoshould benefitfrom genetictesting.

Thegeneticpracticesalsoassistthenursesandtheorganizationto educatepatientsabout thepurposeandthenaturegenetictesting.In addition,healthprofessionalscan usegenetictestingin treatmentandpreventionof commondiseases.Throughgeneticengineering,theskillsandcompetencies of thenursesare enhancedbecausetheyacquiretheabilityto ascertain thepatientswhomight benefitfrom genetictestingorinformationthrough a comprehensivecareandassessment.In addition,nursesare keenin modifyinggenomic/geneticinformationservicesaccordingto thepatient’slanguageability,culture,anddevelopmental stages(Burke, 2007).

Healthcareorganizationsadvocatetherightsof thepatientandtheir familydecision-making processin casethepatientis to undergothegeneticengineeringprocess.Thehealthcare professionalsare facedwith ethicaldilemmasandotherexperiencessuchas unparalleleddevelopmentin thegeneticsfieldbefore theyretire.On theotherhand,midwivesandnursesmay facepersonalconflictstowards pre-natal testing.In fact,testinga fetusfora geneticconditionmay question,buttestingan adultfora lesssevereconditionfornon-medical characteristicswill poseethicaldilemmas(Kirk, 2003).

Impactof on Patients and Families

Undergeneticengineering,thetestresultsorgeneticdiagnosishaveimplicationforthefamilymembersof thepatient.Theyneedto beinformedabout theimpactof on their healthsince anyresultsfrom thepatientwill revealthehealthconnectionto othermembersof thefamily.Therefore,thedietitians should giveinformationto thepatientsabout theimportanceof their geneticinformationfortherelatives,andassisttheir patientsto decidehowto sharetheinformationtotheir familymembers(Newton, Burke, Bennett, Whelan, Burton, andFarndon, 2007).Theinformationwill revealthefamilymemberwhois at riskandiftheinformationdoesnot revealtherequiredgeneticinformationthendietitian should referthepatientto thegeneticspecialistforfurtherconsultation.

Whengeneticinformationis revealedto thefamilymembers,there might be astrongemotionalimpactincludinga feelingof guilt,alienation,futility,sadness,andblame.Thoseemotionalimpactsare commonespeciallycommonin theMendelian geneticdisorder.In addition,thosefeelingoccurwhena patientisdiagnosedwith otherdisorderssuchas canceranddiabetes (Jenkins &amp Calzone, 2007). Inthoseinstances,patientsshould not be toldabout howto stopfeelingguiltrathertheyshould be assistedto understandthecauseof thedisorderandhowtheycannot changethegeneticmakeupof their body,which predisposedthem to thecondition.In fact,thefeelingof blameandguiltshould be channeledto otherrisk-reducinginitiativesthrough environmental modifications.Parentsmay experiencea feelingof guiltwhentheyrealizethattheypassedgeneticdisordersto their childrenwhomight be sufferingfrom chronicillnesses(Jenkins &amp Calzone, 2007).

CaseExample of

Thereare manytypesof geneticengineering.However,onlyfewelementsare allowedforhumantreatment.Somaticgeneticengineeringis usuallyacceptableforhumansince itis easierto initiate,anditis usefulforits abilityin chemicalengineeringas wellas its healthimpactsare mild.In thisprocess,genes are inserteddirectlyinto thecellof a person,to replacethemalfunctioning genes in thatcell(Stock &amp Campbell, 2000). One of themostcommoncasetookplacein 1990, wherebiotechnologist cureda girl(four yearsold)afflictedwith ADA SCID by useof somaticgenetic.Theprocessallowedher cellsto producetherequiredadenosine deaminase naturally,a proteinthat is instrumentalin formingnewDNA that enhancestheimmunesystem.In fact,one of theadvantagesof thisprocedureis thatitaffectsonlytheindividualwhosegenes wereinsertedin thecellandnot theoffspringof thatperson.

Significanceof to thePractice of Healthcare Administration

Geneticengineeringhas assistedin theadministrationof healthcare. Manyhealthcare practiceshavebeenfacilitatedby manipulationandduplication of DNA elementsformedicalpurpose.Theprocesshas revolutionizedthemolecularbiologyandthedevelopmentof thevaccine andvaluableproteinsproduction.In thehealthcare sector,geneticengineeringhas madetherecombinant of DNA possiblein usingthebacteria to producethenecessaryprotein.Forexample,thegenetically engineeredinsulin has beeninstrumentalto thediabetic individualsanditis currently beingutilizedin thewholeworld(Kirk &amp Tonkin, 2006) Secondly, themanufacturerof interferon is a significantpracticein theadministrationof healthcare.Interferon is an agent(antiviral) in thebodythat is secreted by thecellswhentheyare attachedto thevirus.

Geneticallyengineeredinterferon is availableon themarket,andtheyhavebeenusedin thehealthcare settingto reducetheformationof canceroustumors.Additionally, theavailability of growthhormone, which are genetically engineeredproveto be veryusefulin thetreatmentof skinburns,bleedingulcersof thedigestive tract,andbonefractures.Thosehormones are marketedin theUnited States of America since their impactshavecontributedto positivepracticesin theadministrationof healthcare. Still,theproductionof genetically engineeredvaccines offergreatadvantagesin eliminatingvirusesfrom theproteinstheyareextracted,a situationthat eliminateanyriskof accidentalinoculationwith viruses.In essence,geneticengineeringis significantin thewaypracticesof healthcare administrationare carriedout. In fact,thebenefitsattachedto thegeneticengineeringare havingmoresocialimpactthan economicbenefits(NHS National Genetics Education andDevelopment Centre, Skills forHealth, 2007).

RecommendationsforApproachesin Dealingwith GeneticEngineering

Geneticengineeringrequiressoberapproachto implementation becausethere are manyethicalissuesthat hinderits success.Thefirstrecommendationapproachrequiredbefore geneticengineeringtechniquestakeplacepriorauthorizationfrom theinvolvedgovernmentagencies.Thiswill ensurethesafetyforthepatientsandtheconsumerof GMO as wellas theenvironment.Essentially,there are a numberof recommendationsthat must beconsideredin anyeffortto implementgeneticengineering(Kirk, &amp Tonkin, 2006).

  • Because genetic engineering cannot be used in diagnosing and treating all the patients, it is, therefore, important to identify the clients who urgently require the genetic service. This can be done by understanding the family history when assessing the predisposition to the diseases

  • The rights of the clients must be upheld and their decision respected. In fact, the process should be made voluntary after informing the clients on its advantages and disadvantages. Clients should not be coerced, but they should receive counseling on their status as well as other information regarding genetic education

  • The health practitioner must demonstrate a profound awareness and understanding of the limitations and utility of the genetic information and testing. These include the potential consequences of generic information for the family members, individuals, and the community

  • The professionals must communicate and obtain credible current information about the clients, self, genetics, and colleagues by use of effective information technologies

  • Demonstration of understanding and knowledge of the genetics role and other factors that maintain health in the prevention, manifestation, and modification of disease expression

Conclusion

Thestudyof geneticengineeringhas not beenstudiedthoroughlyto comprehendtheoutcomeof thisprocedure.Theprocessof geneticengineeringwill at one-time cureandeliminatemanygeneticproblemsthat are currently not possibleandremainhypothetical.Itis imperativeto doextensivemedicalresearchconcerningthereasoningandthemethodsbehind geneticengineering.However,geneticengineeringraisesmanyethicalquestionshence,itis practicalto initiatemoreresearchin medically ethicalmethods.Thiswill allowtheunderstandingof geneticmanipulationimplicationto thehumanbody.In essence,evenifthemethodsandproceduresare safe,thebenefitsandrisksrequirea lotof considerationbefore theactualapplicationandimplementation occur.Somemedicalpractitioners believethattheprocedurein geneticengineeringmight not be safeorpracticalunless direprecautionsareconsidered.In addition,itis unethicalto usegeneticengineeringforotherpurposesapartfrom researchbecausetheprocedureshaveagreatpotential to save,butmuchpotential to harm.Finally,themedicalpractitioners andscientistsshould understandall thefactsabout thistechnology andonlyutilizeitwhenitis prudentto doso.

References

Burke,S. (2007)&nbspTheExperiences and Preferences of People Receiving Genetic Informationfrom Healthcare Professionals.Birmingham: NHS National Genetics Education and Development Centre.

Departmentof Health&nbsp(2008)&nbspGeneticsWhite Paper Review 2008.London: Stationery Office.

JenkinsJ, Calzone K&nbsp(2007)&nbspEssentialNursing Competencies and Curricula Guidelines for Genetics andGenomics.Silver Spring MA: American Nurses Association.

KirkM, &amp Tonkin, E&nbsp(2006)&nbspGeneticsEducation for Nursing Professional Groups: Survey of Practice andNeeds of UK Educators in Delivering a Genetics CompetenceFramework.Birmingham: NHS National Genetics Education and Development Centre.

Kirk,M. (2003)&nbspFitfor Practice in the Genetics Era: A Competence Based EducationFramework for Nurses, Midwives and Health Visitors.Pontypridd: University of Glamorgan.

Murphy,R. (2008)Clinical implications of a molecular genetics classification ofmonogenic β-cell diabetes.&nbspNatureClinical Practice&nbsp4:4, 200-213.

NewtonR, Burke S, Bennett C, Whelan K, Burton H and Farndon, P. (2007).Dietitians’ views on the importance of genetics to dieteticpractice: the impact of education. Journal of Human Nutrition andDietetics. 20:364.

NHSNational Genetics Education and Development Centre, Skills for Health(2007)EnhancingPatient Care by Integrating Genetics in Clinical Practice: UKWorkforce Competences for&nbspGenetics&nbspin&nbspClinical&nbspPracticefor NonGeneticsHealthcare Staff.Birmingham: NHS National Genetics Education and DevelopmentCentre.perplexed.New York, NY: Nation Books.

Shanks,P. (2005). Human genetic engineering: A guide for activists,skeptics, and the very

Stock,G., &amp Campbell, J. (Eds.). (2000). Engineering the humangermline: An exploration of thescienceand ethics of altering the genes. New York, NY: Oxford UniversityPress.