First name, Last name

Last name 6

Firstname, Last name

Professor/instructor

Subject

RacialProfiling

Racialprofiling is an act of discriminating people based on their race orethnicity. It is mostly practiced by law enforcement personnelgenerally as a key factor when deciding whether to engage in lawenforcement or not. It feels bad to hear that somebody missed to avisa to visit a certain country that he had been invited for a jobinterview simply because he was of a different skin color.

Sometimes racial profiling goes to an extent of not allowing thosewho are of a different race to occupy higher ranks in offices. Insome countries, they do not get employed to government parastatals orcompanies just because they have a different skin color, or are froma different origin. This makes people remain poor while there arechances for them to earn a living (Jadallah and el-Khoury 189).

Background

InUnited States, racial profiling is alive and common. The origin ofracial profiling can be traced from law enforcement authorities whostop, detain, question or subject people to law enforcement based ontheir race, ethnicity, national origin and religion. Every blackperson has their own story of racial profiling. U.S department ofjustice has come up with various laws and regulations to be followedin the country. Strict measures, such as Federal law enforcementofficers are not supposed to use race, ethnicity, gender, nationalorigin, sexual orientation, or gender identity to any degree, havebeen listed (U.S. Department of Justice 2-6). Officers may rely onsuspect description (George Shaun and Gennaro 23).

Opposition

Racialprofiling is strongly opposed by most people since it heightens thesense of alienation by a community it is based on a false premisethat contradicts modern philosophy as well as sociologicalconceptions of race, ethnicity and nation. When this principle isused to make policies, prevent crime and terror, it indicates atheoretical miscarriage. Racial profiling takes place mostly incountries believed to have many people of different races andorigins. Law enforcers such as the police targets members of acertain ethnic group and refer them as criminals, rapists, etc(Corlett 25).

Warrantof My Claim and the Opposition

Stateor local officer’s practice racial profiling so that they cantarget any criminal activities from foreign individuals who areseemingly vulnerable .This in my opinion is disproportionatetargeting simply because it has more harm than good to the targetindividuals (Sweeney 250). This practice goes unacknowledged andunregulated within police structures. It is a practice that operatesunder the shadows. Hence the name shadows migration. To highlight thedangers of racial profiling, the U.S Department of justice (DOJ)civil rights Division conducted investigations focusing on sheriff’soffice. Results indicated that racial profiling was being practicedamong drivers and that Latino drivers were being targeted for trafficenforcement at a higher rate than non-latino drivers, which indicatedthat racially targeted policing was being practiced (U.S. Departmentof Justice 4-8).

Blacks and Latinos in the U.S are often referred to as criminals,rapists, etc.contrally to the history of KKK terrorism against blacksand other non-whites. This history states that most terrorists andserial murderers are whites. This provides enough evidence thatracial profiling should not be practiced in any country and everybodyshould be treated equally despite race or ethnicity (Corlett 25).

Racial profiling is relied on by law enforcement offices and agenciesto consider whether a person committed a crime or an illegal actbased on his race, ethnicity or national origin or even behavior.This is manifested in American civil Liberties Union to discriminatethe minorities. They even indicate it metaphorically as “drivingwhile black and flying while Arab”. Jadallah and el-Khoury (202)adds that racial profiling targets and violates the rights of so manyinnocent people and leaves minorities vulnerable to abuse by lawenforcement agencies. This practice also undermines the rights ofcivil equality in a democratic environment. Most empirical evidencesupports the ineffectiveness and counter-productivity of racialprofiling. Evidence show that US policies target Arabs and Muslimswhile travelling but individuals who are actually convicted ofterrorism-related crimes were not Arabs. For example, Richard Reid isBritish. Respondents from an interview on the practice of racialprofiling comment that racial profiling in Arab American societies isused to dehumanize Arabs and give them a wrong identity.

Ratioprofiling is the act of using statistical evidence concerning racialdifferences in crime rates so as apprehend offenders. The articleclearly states that it does not make sense to use racial or ethniccharacteristics to enforce law but these factors are used to identifyphysical characteristics. Costs and benefits should be considered sothat clear and unbiased investigations can be carried out by police(Thomsen 98).

Racialprofiling has received considerable scrutiny by law enforcementpersonnel, especially during the slave era blacks were known to betargeted for unknown reasons by the police. Blacks and othernon-ethnic communities have been targeted in America in an attempt toprevent and reduce crimes. Lawsuits in New Jersey and Maryland andFlorida indicated that blacks were stopped by police agencies to curbdrug trade in these countries (George Shaun and Gennaro 23).

Studiesconducted by researchers indicate that most traffic stops were mostlyinfluenced by acceptability of racial profiling. Results indicatedthat blacks are treated less fairly than the origins of that country.Studies were conducted on blacks, Hispanics and Whites where 90percent were blacks, 83 per cent were Hispanics and 70 per cent werewhites. Blacks reported to have experienced racial profiling thanHispanics (Thomsen 97). Only 1 per cent whites reported racialprofiling. Race animosity is widespread and persistent between blacksand Whites.

Conclusion

Inconclusion, the above research states clearly that racial profilinghas been used to victimize innocent citizens who are foreigners in acertain country. Policies should be put forward to indicate that thispractice is illegal. This should bring the attention and the focus ofthe officials in law enhancement sectors to make laws that arestrictly against racial profiling.

WorksCited

Corlett,Angelo. “Profiling Color.” Journalof Ethics15.1/2(2011): 21-32. Print.

Racialprofiling, according to the author, is used to discriminate and referthe non-origins in American states as criminals or rapists. However,studies have revealed that it is actually the whites who are greatterrorists.

U.S.Department of Justice. “Guidance for Federal Law Enforcement AndAgencies Regarding The Use Of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, NationalOrigin, Religion, Sexual Orientation, Or Gender Identity.” U.S.Department of Justice. Retrieved 17thJanuary 2015 fromhttp://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/ag/pages/attachments/2014/12/08/use-of-racepolicy.pdf

Thislaw issues laws and regulations to be followed by any law enforcementofficers so that they can end racial profiling in U.S. It discouragesracial profiling by the law enforcement agencies.

GeorgeHiggins Shaun Gabbidon and Gennaro, Vito. “Exploring The InfluenceOf Race Relations And Public Safety Concerns On Public Support ForRacial Profiling During Traffic Stops.”International Journal of Police Science 12.1(2010): 12-25. Print.

Asobserved by the authors, traffic stops and frisking have shownevidence that most blacks are greatly harassed than whites. Thisserves as a warning to the police and creates awareness to the policymakers.

Jadallah,Dina and el-Khoury Laura. “State Power and the Constitution of theIndividual: Racial Profiling of Arab Americans.Arabstudies quarterly32.3 (2010):187-205. Print.

Studiesdone in this article by Jadallah and el-Khoury clearly indicated thatmost non-Arabs and the Hispanics experienced racial profiling whilethe whites reported little or no such cases.

Thomsen,Klem. “The Art of the Unseen: Three Challenges for RacialProfiling.” Journalof Ethics 15.1/2 (2011):89-117. Print.

Thomsennotes that the government must be able to estimate the costs and thechallenges faced by those experiencing racial profiling. This articleenhances that Blacks in U.S experience so many challenges.

Sweeney,Maureen. “Shadow Immigration Enforcement and Its ConstitutionalDangers.Criminallawand Criminology 104.2(2014): 227-282. Print.

Racialprofiling is experienced in airports with evidence of most blacksbeing harassed when being frisked. As observed by Sweeney, Blacksreported cases of discrimination which acts as a hindrance to freelymigrate from one country to another.