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Accordingto (Schmidt&amp Brown, 2012), nursingpractices today are characterized by frequent development andimprovements in terms of how treatment is administered. Thetraditional practices that involve treatment administration withoutevidence has been overturned today according to (Hairr,Salisbury, Johannsson &amp Redfern-Vance, 2014)to come up with the best practices of nursing with evidences,quantitative and qualitative research must be done to identify newknowledge and skills of treatment and provision of healthcareservices to the patients.

Thispaper will identify some of the research studies and the relateddesigns used in carrying out evidence based nursing practiceresearch. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the factors thatinfluence an individual to feel the pain on one hand and the factorsthat can control the spread of diseases in the hospitals on the otherhand. In addition, it will identify the research designs used indifferent research studies on nursing practice.


Thediscussion in the article by (Arnold &amp Mitchell, 2008) provesthat the type of research that can be used to study pain managementis quantitative. This type of study aims at determining whether thereis a relationship between an independent variable and dependentvariable like the old age and level of pain felt (Slaughter,Cole, Jennings &amp Reimer, 2007) respectively. Itapplies empirical search and generalizing of insights on population.The research questions that may arise from this study are such asdoes a relationship exist between pain and disability of themuscles in old age people?

Thedependent variable is the pain while the independent variable is thedisability in the muscles. Other independent variables include thegender, level of work and emotion controllability. The level of paintherefore can be predicted by the independent variables if there is arelationship between them. This kind of study doesn’t show thecausal relationship between the dependent and independent variable(Hairr,Salisbury, Johannsson &amp Redfern-Vance, 2014)it only shows whether there is a relationship between them.

Thisis the question that is required to be answered in this paper inorder to come up with conclusions.In the book by (Schmelzer,2004), researchdesign refers to the framework or the methodology used to plan,implement, collect and analyze data for the research study. In thearticle by (Schmelzer,2000) themethodology will lead the researcher into and help him or her obtainthe answers to the research questions.

Theresearch design used to carry out this kind of quantitative researchis the correlation research design. It involves a systematicinvestigation of the relationship and the association amongvariables. It provides (Hairr,Salisbury, Johannsson &amp Redfern-Vance, 2014)the nature of relationships among the variables like whetherpositively related or inversely related. The variables in this studyinclude the pain as the dependent variable and gender, level of workand disability of the muscles as the independent variables.

Throughthis design the effect of changes in one or more variable to changesin another variable can be examined and determined (Schmelzer,2000).Specifically, it provides the direction, magnitude and the strengthof the relationship among the variables. The results obtained fromthis kind of study as postulated in the book by (Schmelzer,2004) helpsin formulating the hypothesis for the study to be tested inexperiments.


Thesample presents the population (Hairr,Salisbury, Johannsson &amp Redfern-Vance, 2014) thatconsists off mainly those who are old age, those performing work thatare injury prone or hard labor, the emotions prone individuals andboth females and males. This is because these are the individualswhose lives are prone to pain. They are the holders of theindependent variables the research wants to determine theirinfluence. The sample size selected is at least 5% of this type ofpopulation in order to be representative.

Dataanalysis and presentation

Datapresentation and analysis can be done through the use of differenttools and methods. In his book (Schmelzer,2004), thedata obtained can be presented by the use of scatter diagram to showthe relationship between the variables. Analysis is done basing ontechniques such as the coefficient of determination to determine thestrength of the relationships among the variables. Qualitativetechniques (Hamilton,Corlett, &amp Dowling, 2014)are employed to help analyze the quantitative results to get thefindings. The procedure for data analysis is deductive approach withmultivariate analysis (Schmelzer,2004) thisis because the research objective is to deduce the relationship amongvariables.

Thetests available for this study is the coefficient of determination, Ttest, F test and Critical Value. R2is 0.8. The T test and F test are statistically significant at the 5%significance level p and t values of the variables are within therange of 0.05. This shows (Hairr,Salisbury, Johannsson &amp Redfern-Vance, 2014) thatthe variables in the regression equation have the explanatory powerand are goodness of fit for the study.


Describingthe population of the patient may be difficult and not accurate.Selection of the patient population (Hairr,Salisbury, Johannsson &amp Redfern-Vance, 2014) maylack some level of confidence.

Therecan be failure to involve the required controls such as the observersaccording to the book by (Schmelzer,2004) tomake sure that there is no any element of intervention that couldlead to poor results.


Throughresearch findings from (Hairr,Salisbury, Johannsson &amp Redfern-Vance, 2014), thestudy results and findings can be generalized to the population ofinterest Samples can be selected such as of individual and society atlarge to ensure that the final results are representative.

Inconsidering the study on control of spread of diseases in hospital,the type of research that will be used is qualitative as it providessome insights and ideas to some phenomenon. It doesn’t give ageneralized insight to the population of interest. It only, accordingto (Hamilton,Corlett, &amp Dowling, 2014), aimsat generating some ideas, concepts and opinions about the studycomponent. Examples of research questions that arise from this studyin accordance to (Schmelzer,2004), are: whatare the factors that facilitate the spread of diseases in thehospital setting? What are the control measures available for thecontrol of this spread of the diseases?

Thisresearch question helps in the formation of null and alternativehypotheses. The hypotheses will lead to the identification of theresearch design to use in collecting the necessary data to be used inanalysis. The type of research design used is qualitative. This typeof research design as discussed by (Hamilton,Corlett, &amp Dowling, 2014),employs experience, professional guess work, opinions and judgmentalreasoning to collect and come at a conclusion on the findingsobtained. They rely on assumptions and theories which are formulatedwithout evidence. According to (Schmidt&amp Brown, 2012)the quantitative research design is used to prove and verify thetruth behind these theories and assumptions.

Thesample size and the representativeness depend on the judgment of theexperts who are conducting the research. There is use of the pastexperience on the selection of the sample size and apply it to thecurrent study if it was successful in the previous ones (Schmelzer,2000). The data is analyzed basing on the judgment of the analystsand the results are subjective without objectivity and empiricalconcepts. The data are not presented in numerical terms but involvesa summary of theories. The procedures followed, through a deepdiscussion in the article by (Hamilton,Corlett, &amp Dowling, 2014),in data analysis involves: obtaining the qualitative data andconductive a phenomenal analysis of the results obtained.

Weaknessesof the study

Thequalitative research study has a weakness and this is approved in thearticle by (Schmelzer,2004) statingthat the selection of sample size and the sampling units isjudgmental and lack objectivity. The data analysis and conclusionsare also subject to biasness.


Thequalitative data however has a great strength that is detailed out inthe article by (Hamilton,Corlett, &amp Dowling, 2014), thatdata collected and findings made from the study leads to developmentof new concepts, theories and assumptions which form the basis of thequantitative research. Pain management is a crucial part of treatmentadministration that should be dealt with through deep analysis ofwhat the patients are experiencing and coming up with data that willensure that the pains are relieved. Research studies on nursing canbe both qualitative and quantitative in nature. The research studiesthat are qualitative are concerned with giving concepts and insightsto the about the treatment techniques to be adopted while thequantitative ones are concerned with giving the general insightsabout the treatments of patients through the use of facts andfindings.


Arnold,M., &amp Mitchell, T. (2008). Nurses` perceptions of care receivedby older people with mental health issues in an acute hospitalenvironment.&nbspNursingOlder People, 20(10),28– 34.

Hairr,D.C., Salisbury, H., Johannsson, M. &amp Redfern-Vance, N. (2014).Nurse staffing and the relationship to job satisfaction andretention. Nursing Economic$, 32(3), 142-147.&nbsp

Hamilton,G., Corlett, J. &amp Dowling, M. (2014). Adult-trained perioperativenurses’ practice of family-centered care. British Journal ofNursing, 23(9), 477-482. doi: 10.12968/bjon.2014.23.9.477

Schmelzer,M. (2000). Understanding the research methodology: Should we trustthe researchers` conclusions?&nbspGastroenterologyNursing, 23(6),269–274.

Schmelzer,M. (2004). Understanding statistics: What is alpha(á)?&nbspGastroenterologyNursing, 27(6),292–293.

Schmidt,N. A., &amp Brown, J. M. (2012).&nbspEvidence-basedpractice for nurses: Appraisal and application of research.Sudbury, Mass: Jones &amp Bartlett Learning.

Slaughter,S., Cole, D., Jennings, E., &amp Reimer, M. A. (2007). Consent andassent to participate in research from people with dementia.&nbspNursingEthics, 14(1),27–40.