Erosion,Sedimentation and Reservoir Capacity
of Case 2, Chapter 9 “Erosion,Sedimentation and Reservoir Capacity”
Soilerosion has over time been an obstacle to better farming, dams, andwater sources, among other vices. Soil erosion and sedimentationoccurs hand in hand. Sedimentation is the tendency of soil particlesin water suspension to settle within the water. Soil erosion hasbecome a major global environmental problem, and together withsedimentation of various water bodies, it’s proving to be morenegative effecting. In reference to the given, case, throughsedimentation and soil erosion, the lake Ballinger dam in UnitedStates Texas had its capacity reduced by sedimentation. The dam’sheight was reduced from 11M deep to 1M deep, which means the volumeof water was reduced between the given periods. The reservoircapacity is reduced posing a problem with the water supply projects(Yang et al, 2014).
Theimpact of sedimentation and soil erosion over time has grown fromjust a farming problem to a global environmental problem. The impacthas been far and wide and not only in farming. The impacts have beenin infrastructure, health wise, mining, and fishing among othersectors. Different factors have been identified to contribute to thesedimentation and the soil erosion process. These include poorfarming practices, construction, and mining excavations, cutting downof trees. As farming continued to be embraced, the more particles ofsoil were swept into the water streams. The construction of dams wasa positive development to provide a continuous water supply to themunicipal council. Continued cultivation of the land around the dam,accelerated sedimentation process, hence the continued reduction ofthe reservoir capacity. Unfortunately, the majority of the farmingpractices failed to effectively control soil erosion and in turn thesoil being swept into the streams and in turn to the dam (Yang et al,2014).
Underthe Texas state soil and water conservation board, programs have beeninitiated to help to protect and enhance the natural resources in theregion. With the implementation of natural resources protection Act,the Texas authority should take responsibility to lead and educate onthe measures to reduce the erosion of wastes into water bodies hencereducing sedimentation. New facilities and should implemented to helpin reducing the rate of soil erosion in the region. Additionally,initiative should be taken to clean up the dam, to increase the waterreservoir, which increases the municipal water volume, hence bettersupply to the people. In addition to soil erosion controlsedimentation should also be controlled through control of wastedeposition into water bodies (Yang et al, 2014). The proposedcontainment facility entails, includes filtration of the water as itenters into the dams (at the inlet). Thos will allow for continuouswater level in the dams, as well as being easier to clean-up thefiltration chamber rather than the dam itself
Asa part natural resources control act, soil erosion protectioninitiative has been overly implemented in the region. Despite notfully achieving the target results have been promising as the rate ofsedimentation has been reduced over timed. This has allowed forincreased water reservoir volume as well as reduced rate of soilwashing into the dam (erosion). However, the initiative has beentaken positively by the surrounding farmers hence being a positivegain to the environment protection act.
Yang,S., Milliman, J., Xu, K., Deng, B., Zhang, X., & Luo, X. (2014).Downstream sedimentary
andgeomorphic impacts of the Three Gorges Dam on the YangtzeRiver. Earth-ScienceReviews, 138469-486.