Question1: EthnicEnclave Theory and Internal Colonialism: Effect to Minority Groups
Theinternal colonialism framework is not strongly exhibited in theUnited States in the present day as it was in 1960s. It wascharacterized by a decidedly industrialized capitalist societystratified into racial categories. The whites comprised of themajority population and formed the elite class that had preponderanteconomic power. Until the 1960s, a white US citizen dominated theeconomy during the minority groups such as the African-Americans,Mexican-Americans, and Cuban-Americans, among other minority groups.Until 1964 and 1965 when African-Americans secured voting rights andcivil rights, many African-Americans were oppressed including arrestsand imprisonments. The African-Americans were deprived of severaleconomic rights that made their economic progress difficult. Theaffirmative action was a means of making the Black Americans secure aconsiderable level of state employment and make them get close to parwith the white population (Bohmer, 1998).
TheLatino groups that formed enclaves were able to increase their unityand realized a better living compared to the groups that wereisolated. However, later studies could reveal that the groups thatworked within their ethnic enclaves earned fewer incomes compared tothose that worked in mixed groups. For instance, the Hispanicsmajorly spoke Spanish and others could speak both Spanish andEnglish. Some worked in environments that they used to speak inSpanish only. Such groups never made attempts to improve the academiclevels that they were before immigrating to the US (Xie &Gough, 2012).
Question2: Whatare the Major ReasonsCubanAmericans have been the Most Economically Successful of theHispanic/Latino Groups?
TheCuban Americans became more successful than other Latino groupsbecause of various reasons. First, the Cuban-Americans began toinvolve themselves in matters of politics and society. Shortly afterimmigrating, the Cuban-Americans collect and increase theirconcentration in Dade country, which made them politically strong andactive. The Cubans formed the “Municipios de Cuba en elExilio,” a municipality for the Cubans exiled in America. Thismovement started growing and later translated into a meaningfulgroup. They later began to connect and help other exiles from Cuba,including searching for jobs and houses for them. The “Liga Contrael Cancer,” which means League against Cancer was another movementformed by the Cuban-Americans in 1920s. This organization was meantto collect funds and help the Cuban cancer patients. Cuban Americansformed other movements that made them socially and politically strong(Eckstein, 2006).
CubanAmericans formed several other organizations, including buildergroups, physician groups, and law groups. They formed the separatechamber of commerce. Cuban-Americans realized the power of collectiveaction. They began to send their children to prominent schools andbecame members of groups that operated nationally. For instance, theKiwanis that was comprised of 100 percent Hispanics, around 90percent of them were Cubans. The Cubans found success in unificationthat was powered by collective groups that pushed for their welfareand inclusion in national matters of the United States.Cuban-Americans were a distinct among other immigrants because oftheir early involvement in matters of politics, welfare and economics(Eckstein, 2006).
Cuban-Americansbecame active politically and pushed for their voting rights earlierthan other groups. For instance, in 2004, 54 percent of the Cubanshad been registered as US citizens and had secured rights to votecompared to only 29 percent of the Mexican-Americans. Cubans wereable to secure political positions, including elected positions.Thus, the Cubans started to experience upward mobility more than theaverage Hispanics. Cubans played an important role in the election ofPresident Bush. Among the ethnic groups, Cubans were the group thatmade major donations. Also, they overwhelmingly voted for PresidentBush. In return, President Bush appointed them in both top level andmiddle level government positions including the department ofCommerce and the National Security Council. These appointments pavedmore way for Cuban-Americans realize an upward mobility, socially,politically and economically (Eckstein, 2006).
Question3: Role of Tourism in American Portrayal of Hawaii
Americanshave a feeling of ownership of their resources, including the tourismHawaii highlands. Hawaii has been opened up for corporate tourismthat has become an international destination. Among the Americans, itis a place conducive and convenient for relaxation since it is a fewminutes fly from California. However, the Hawaiian residents do notenjoy the peace that may be perceived by many people. The developmentof Hawaii as an international tourist destination has been the effortof the high political class, multinational investors, and massiveland owners. $60 million is allocated every year to boost tourism inHawaii. However, it is the advertisement agents and tour companiesthat know the benefits of tourism in Hawaii. Residents of Hawaii andthe native populations have had to sheld the burden of the expansionof tourism, which is perceived to bring massive incomes in the region(Haunani, 2010).
Thepicture painted of the corporate Hawaiian tourism by facts istormenting. In nearly the past forty years, the number of tourists inHawaii was only half of the residents. Today, the number of touristsexceeds the residents three times and is thirty times more than thenatives. Tourism has been the source of both people and propertycrime in Hawaii. The economic gains for Hawaiian residents are belowper capita income. Nearly half of the Hawaiian population is withouthomes, which explains the reason for the raising beach villages inHawaii in addition to other homeless enclaves in the region. The costof living in Hawaii has gone very high making the native populationand the original residents unable to afford. As a result, many ofthem are moving to the inland in search for better lives (Haunani,2010).
Thehigh schools in Hawaii have collaborated to offer tour guidance ingardens, kitchens and honeymoon grounds in preparation forpost-secondary jobs. The state Department of Education spreadstourism appreciation kits to all elementary schools. Schooling hasbeen greatly affected by tourism. Teenagers leaving high school gofor jobs in the tourism sector as bartenders, housekeepers, anddancers. However, these jobs are the lowest paid in the industry.Many have resorted to prostitution, which is growingly eroding theculture of the region (Haunani, 2010).
Question4: Black Consumerism Effect to African-Americans
Blackconsumerism arose from the economic successes of 1920s, which sparkedthe rise of consumer organizations that were geared towards educatingpeople on wise consumption and to warn on misleading advertisements.Black-Americans were said to have a high spending culture, despitethat majority of them were poor. Thus, it was imperative to educatethe African-Americans on wise spending and saving. According toAfrican-Americans, highest spending was a way of creating prestige ina society that looked down upon them. Black consumerism could beviewed as a coping strategy that could make them deal with the hatredand insecurity. However, consumerism can greatly hamper economicprogress (Whitehead, 1999).
Therise of movements such as the National Negro Business League andNational Association of Wage Earners was important for theAfrican-Americans entrepreneurs and businessmen. On the other hand,black consumerism has been a source of motivation for theAfrican-Americans to work harder for their success in business.Better business deals, translate to better incomes that motivate themto spend more on consumer goods. African-Americans have higherpoverty levels compared to other groups in the US. If their spendinghabits could be geared towards the general welfare, they could get onpar with other groups. However, high consumption has contributed tolower economic standards, which makes them rank lower among otherpopulations (Whitehead, 1999).
Bohmer,P. (1998). African-Americansas an Internal Colony: The Theory of Internal Colonialism.
Haunani,K. (2010). Problems in Paradise: Sovereignty in the Pacific.Cultural survival. Available at:<http://www.culturalsurvival.org/ourpublications/csq/article/tourism-and-the-prostitution-of-hawaiian-culture>.
Whitehead,J. (1999). Readings in Black Political Economy.Kendall/Hunt: Dubuque, Iowa. Eckstein,S. (2006). Cuban Émigrés and the American Dream. Perspectives onPolitics 4.02 (2006): 211-233.
Xie,Y. & Gough, M. Ethnic Enclaves and theEarnings of Immigrants. Demography,48, 4 (2012): 1293-1413.