Direct Instruction


When teachers employ direct instruction strategy in teaching, theymake clear concepts as well as show approaches, modeling in additionto thinking aloud on how to make conclusions or determine thesignificance of ideas within a text (Kierstead, 1985). Directlearning is a productive manner for learners to take charge of theirlearning. The approach is skill-oriented and implies forteacher-directed teaching endeavors. It insists on the utilization ofsmall group, face-to-face teaching and assists in employingvigilantly expressed lessons where cognitive skills aredifferentiated to small units (Camine et al, 2013). In directinstruction, the objective of the instructor is to transmit skillsand ideas directly to the students.

Practical Application of al Model

Grade level for application: sixth grade

Subject: Math

Length of time on the instructional model: one class periodlasting for thirty minutes

The instructional objective: is to ensure that students areable to write improper fractions of their choice as mixed numbers. Inthe sixth grade, it is expected that students are capable ofdescribing the associations amid variables, foretell what is tohappen to a variable when another changes, evaluate naturalvariation, as well as variability sources and compare changepatterns. The long-term aim of the lesson involves ensuring that thestudents will be able to subtract, multiply, add and divide any twomixed figures that have different denominators. In the previousclass, learners worked with partners and employed fractionmanipulatives for enhancing comprehension of equal mixed numbers andimproper fractions. In the next class, learners are expected to learnwriting mixed figures as improper fractions that will be an inverseof the thirty minutes direct instructional lesson.

Required knowledge or conducts: it is required that learnersare capable of doing multi-digit division, as well as multiplicationwithout using a calculator. The math should be done by hand.Calculators are used in performing division and multiplicationexercises. The learners need to have the capability of identifyingimproper fractions and mixed figures and be aware that there are twomanner of writing the similar fractional amount. Required conducts isthat learners are aware that to respond or ask questions, they oughtto raise their hand and wait for the instructor to ask them torespond. The learners are also aware that they are merely permittedto work in groups on math problems when the instructor hasspecifically instructed them to work as a group.

Relevancy of content to students: fractions are employed incomprehending real-life ratios. Learners need to comprehend themethod of working with improper fractions since they will come acrossfractions in later academic classes.

Materials: the instructor will use a dry-erase makers, boardand erasers. The students will use a worksheet, pencil and an eraser,more papers to show calculations. The students will be given theworksheets once the instructor is done modeling.

Procedure of :

Focus activity – the teacher asks the learners about the disparityamid an improper fraction and a mixed number, and helps in thediscussion on the topic. Possible questions the teacher will askinclude:

What is the disparity amid an improper fraction and mixed number?

What have we previously learnt in class?

What are the discoveries you have made?

Why do we say mixed numbers?

Why do we say improper fraction?

Determining the objective and rationale – learners learn how tochange improper fractions to mixed figures without the employment offraction manipulatives. It is easier, in addition to being efficientto compute an answer instead of always depending on the use ofmanipulatives.

Content presentation and modeling – the instructor starts with anexplanation of the content and progresses to model how to solve mathquestions written on the board as the entire class observes. Theteacher progresses to avail written steps for solving every mathquestion on the board.

Receiving and giving feedback – the teacher determines if studentshave comprehended through having the learners actively take part inthe class, by responding to questions or solving math problems on theboard. For instance, the teacher can write a math problem on theboard and progress to ask for students’ feedback on what to dofirst when solving the problem.

Guided practice – the instructor tells the learners to completejust two of the math problems provided on the worksheetindependently. As soon as the students are through solving theproblems, they are required to raise their hands for the teacher tocheck the correctness of every student’s answer. If the first twoquestions are correctly solved, the learners are asked to completeall the questions in the worksheet.

Independent practice – the learners complete the worksheets ontheir own, without assistance from the teacher. This followsanswering correctly to the first two questions during guidedpractice.

Closure – the instructor requests one student to explain theirexperience on the class supposing the school principal was to stopthem and ask about their class experience.

Addressing student learning methods during the class

Visual – the instructor modeled the manner of changing improperfractions to mixed figures on the board. The teacher also availswritten direction of every step taken in problem solving and depictedthis idea multiple times. The students are provided with worksheets,which they are supposed to complete. In addition, the teacher drew achart in the first illustration for learners to use as reference whensolving problems individually.

Auditory – in addition to the written directions, the instructorverbalizes the directions on how to convert improper fractions tomixed numbers. The instructor as well checked the learner’scomprehension through asking probing questions all through thelesson.

Kinesthetic – learners are capable of completing a math puzzleafter completion of worksheets.

Tactile – though the learners had more demonstrative learning,which was included in the former classes when the instructor availedthem with manipulatives, the instructor still used demonstrativelearning in this direct instructional class. The learners wrote outevery problem as they solved in steps. The learners also completedindependent worksheets.

Assessment criteria

Tangible evidence, which will be employed in showing that theinstruction method has been effective, involves feedback from theworksheets. The teacher will evaluate the learner’s work from thecompleted worksheets. The students are needed to demonstrate work forevery step while solving the problem, for the teacher to have anenhanced comprehension on how the learners found their answers.

The teacher considers quality work as that written legibly and whichdemonstrates every step in the learner’s problem solving. It isalso apparent to the instructor the response for every problem asanswers are circled. There will be no use of rubric in measuringstudent learning, and neither will learner’s self-assess for theassignment.


Camine, D. W., Silbert, J., Kame’enui, E. J &amp Tarve, S. G.(2013). What is ? Pearson Allyn BaconPrentice Hall.

Chapter 6 . Instructional Patterns: Strategiesfor Maximizing Student Learning.

Kierstead, J. (1985). and Experiential Approaches:Are they mutually exclusive? Educational Leadership, 25-30.

Prawat, R. S. . Psychology of ClassroomLearning, 326-329.