Differences of angiosperms and gymnosperms


Angiosperms and gymnosperms are part of the plant kingdom. Theyrefer to all plants categorized as seed plants, implying that theymake seeds and pollen grains.

Gymnosperms are plants, which make seedslacking an outer fruit. The phrase refers to naked seed, sincegymnosperm seeds have structures that expose them to the surrounding.Usually the seeds are contained in cones. They have female and malecones. Sperm is produced in the male cone contained within pollengrains, and the cones are small compared to female. The female conesmake eggs enclosed in ovules. The female cones contain a stickyresin, which captures pollen released by male cones. Followingfertilization, the female cones become bigger while at the same timeseparation of scales happens. The separation causes seeds to fallfrom the cone, where they are dispersed. Angiosperms refer toflowering plants, which reproduce via seeds contained in fruit. Theplant’s flower can comprise both female and male anatomy, inaddition to sterile structures. In the case where a plant has bothanatomies it is referred as a perfect flower, whereas a flowercontaining one of the female or male only is an imperfect flower.

Millions of years before, gymnosperms were thesole type of plant life on earth. However, 200 to 250 million yearsback, angiosperms started evolving (Qui et al 405). Currently thedistribution of angiosperms is larger, as well as populous. Thus, theplants are regarded as the dominant plant life globally. Angiospermscontain a rather diverse array of plants, ranging from 250,000 to400,000 species (Pooja 102). The species occupy each type of land,and marine surrounding apart from the extreme environments. They canbe monocots or dicots. Monocots comprise of a single cotyledon,multiple flower sections of 3, parallel veins in addition todispersed vascular bundles all through the stem. Dicots comprise oftwo cotyledons, multiple flower sections of 4/5, leaves have anetwork vein sequence, and the vascular bundles form a ring shape atthe stem’s edge (Pooja 104). Physically, seed-bearing angiospermscontain roots, which support the plant. Leaves act as the majorsource of food intake while stems are the central transport systemfor the whole plant. Gymnosperms have a stem and root, but no ovaryor stigma like in angiosperms.

Because both are vascular plants, angiospermsand gymnosperms contain a sporophyte-dominant life phase. The levelof tissue formation in gymnosperms is lesser compared to angiosperms.The later comprise of a triploid vascular tissue, flat leaves indiverse appearances, as well as hardwood stems (Pooja 105). Due tothe numerous arrays of flower-bearing/fruit plants, they consist ofnumerous colors and leaf forms, fruits and flowers. Gymnospermsappear haploid, are spiky and with needle-like leaves, in addition tobeing softwood. They are anatomically simple as they are not fruit orflower bearing plants, and though of diverse species, are normallyjust tall evergreens having brown cones. The plant stays alive allthrough the year, while angiosperms die in autumn.

Many plants are asexual. Conversely,gymnosperms are both bisexual and unisexual. The plant gametes becomedispersed via animal, wind or insect pollination. The flowers havethe male and female gamete within, and following fertilization,ovules develop to become a fruit. Gymnosperms’ gametes are locatedin the cones. Fertilization is single because pollen grains drop andimmediate germination happens on ovules. In many gymnosperms, theendosperm is a haploid tissue, due to the absence of triple fusion ordouble fertilization, since the endosperm is formed prior tofertilization (Fralish and Franklin 23). Angiosperms are bisexual, inmost cases comprising of pollen receptive structures, which areindependent. Pollen grains containing sperm cells are released fromthe stamen’s anther. The pollen falls on the pistil or stigma. Theprocess refers to pollination. Once the pollen grain touches thestigma, a pollen tube begins to develop. The tube links the ovulefrom the ovary, delivering sperm cells to ovules. The sperm contactsthe egg from the ovule resulting in fertilization. The fertilized eggturned into a seed whereas the ovary develops into a protectivefruit.

The plants differ in their uses, as well.Angiosperms are the providers of almost all plant-based food. Theyalso produce animal feed. Legumes, grains, cabbages and fruit amongothers are all illustrations of plant-foods. Different angiosperms,such as cotton, as well as flax are used in making paper andtextiles. Hardwood floors are made via the utilization of hardwoodfloors (Fralish and Franklin 24). Contrary, gymnosperms are used inmaking products. For instance, they may be processed to perfume, soapor varnish. The conifers like fir, pine in addition to spruce aregenerally employed for lumber.

It is possible to differentiate between bothplants by observing the disparate features. In summary, the majordifferentiator between both plants is that angiosperms have theirseeds contained in the ovary. Gymnosperms have exposed seeds, whichare not contained in an ovule. Angiosperms comprise of triploidtissues while haploid tissues are in gymnosperms. The plants lookdifferent based on the leaves, fertilization, use and anatomicaldisparities.

Works Cited

Fralish, James S, and Scott B. Franklin. Taxonomy and Ecology ofWoody Plants in North American Forests (excluding Mexico andSubtropical Florida). New York: Wiley, 2002. Print.

Pooja, . Angiosperms. New Delhi: Discovery Pub. House, 2004.Print.

Qiu, Yin-Long, et al. The earliest angiosperms: evidence frommitochondrial, plastid and nuclear genomes. Nature 402.6760(1999): 404-407.