China History



Inhistoriography, the impression of progress is termed as a theory thattends to advance in science, technology, and social organization soas to improve the human condition. In other words, it is therevolution of human aspects. It aims at making people happier throughsocial progress that is improving their quality of life as well asthrough economic development also termed as modernization. It alsoincorporates the idea of the application of science and technologyalso termed as scientific progress. The assumption made related toprogress is that it can only take place when people apply skills andreason. However, revolution has numerous barriers that tend toneutralize, slow or hinder progress. Revolutionaries and thereformers play a vital role in ensuring that the revolution takesplace fully. They make this happen through criticizing wherenecessary as well as offering essential insights that have potentialin bringing the intended reforms. According to Ebrey (2010), theprogress idea has its roots in the late nineteenth century and earlytwentieth century. The document below analyzes the china’srevolution, reviewing the reformers’ and revolutionaries’criticisms as well as their visions.


Genderis one aspect that attracted the reformers’ and revolutionaries’attention in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Genderrole is termed as the most crucial recurring issue that china faced.In the entire nineteenth as well as early twentieth centuries,revolutionaries and reformers offered critics to both the present andthe past related to the gender aspect. They, however, possessednumerous visions for the future of the gender issues in china. In theyear 1919, a very protuberant movement for feminists in china wasdeveloped. It was termed as the May Fourth movement. This can betermed as the symbol of the Chinese revolutionary ideals of thenineteenth and the twentieth centuries. The reformers and therevolutionaries criticized the community’s disdain for the women’srole. During that time as well as the past the Chinese societydisregarded the women’s role in the society especially inadministration matters.

Therevolutionaries as well as the reformers, however, had a strongbelief that women’s position in the society will improve in thefuture. According to Ebrey (2010), he revolutionaries criticized thepast as well as the beliefs that were present in that era pertaininggender roles and inequality. Foot binding practice is one of thebeliefs that the reformers condemned in unison. It was until 1895when the first anti-foot binding society was initiated. This was therevolutionaries’ initiative. The objective of the initiative washelping the women in overthrowing the Manchus, as well as liberatingwomen. The reformers and the revolutionaries criticized theperception that women were only dressed appropriately if theirfootwear resembled those of their brothers. People believed thatother forms of footwear might be offensive and shocking to othermembers of the society.

Thereformers and the revolutionaries condemned the notion that theChinese society had of viewing women as sub-human. This was aculturally created perception whose roots were dated as old as theChinese society. The reformers and the revolutionaries noted that theadvancement of china was dependent on changing this perception. Theyinsisted that people needed to treat women equally. Therevolutionaries and the reformers possessed a vision of liberatingthe gender equality which triggered them to form various movementssuch as May Fourth movement. The gender issue had created adefinition of the work that was to be done by men and that of women(Ebrey, 2010).

Asearly as 1100-770 B.C.E also termed as the Zhou period, a phrase Menplow while women weave was in existence. This notion faced numerouscriticisms from the reformers and the revolutionaries. They claimedthat it was very unfortunate that the phrase was effective from thatperiod up to the early twentieth century. This was brought out by thefact that women were left to run the silk production solely on theirown. The silk production was very essential to the diplomacy and thetrade of china (Tamura, 1997).

Therevolutionaries and the reformers criticized this notion citing howgreatly china would economically reform in case all the members ofthe society would embark in it. If everyone would dedicate his effortin the silk industry without employing a belief that there is a rolefor men different from that of women china would have registered asignificant economic revolution. This hence formed their basis ofcritics upon the gender aspect in china. However, they had a beliefthat the Chinese would come to appreciate the potential in women, thenotion that kept them moving and mobilizing people through variousmovements.

Urbanizationis another aspect that is very crucial for any nation. This is oneaspect that is used in determining the extent in which a given nationhas become civilized or have developed. The Chinese cities welcomednumerous critics from the reformers and the revolutionaries. ManyChinese believed that urbanization was a corrupt way of denying themthe opportunity of enjoying their culture. Others claimed that it wasa way of instilling western culture which would eventually rob themtheir culture. This formed the main reason for many Chinese to opposeurbanization despite great potential therein of bringing civilizationin china (Ebrey, 2010).

Thereformers and the revolutionaries stepped in and criticized theprimitive cities that people were living. They also criticized theperception in which the Chinese society had towards the china’surbanization. They noted that it was unwise to approach the issue ofurbanization on the assumption that the problems of urban areas werepart of the larger rural context. The reformers and therevolutionaries criticized the condition people were living in. Theywere living old, dirty and very congested houses in rural areas. Theyhence criticized that lifestyle urging people that it was unnecessaryto fear the urban crisis and continue living in such a primitivemanner (Ebrey, 2010).

Thereformers and the revolutionaries, however, noted that the resistanceto developing of cities was triggered by the Chinese culturalcontext. From the ancient days, they believed in their culture andbelieved that anything originating from other societies should not beadopted. This perception had been carried all through the era thuscontributing to the condition that was in Chinese condition by thenin terms of urbanization. They indicated that the key to developmentof china was urbanization. It would not only be of economicallyadvantage but also help the Chinese to become culturally civilized.They claimed that some traditions were useless and only acted as astumbling block towards china’s development (Tamura, 1997).

Thereformers and the revolutionaries, however, also criticized someaspects that were incorporated in the urbanization aspect. Theycriticized the nativist fashions and behaviors that were attributedto urbanization. They claimed that these behaviors and fashions werebelow standards and therefore they should be rejected. They claimedthat urbanization was good, but the Chinese should not trade theirnorms for urbanization. This reflected the Chinese rural life asopposed to the urban and in that perspective the rural life seemedbetter. They, however, noted that urbanization was the only way oftaking china to the next level. This indicated that to a great extenturbanization was appraisable although some of its aspects were notvery essential (Ebrey, 2010).

Therevolutionaries and the reformers had great visions of urbanizedchina. The reformers proposed models that were retrieved from theglobal discourse related to urban planning. Some reformers believedthat china will have developed cities with standard housing andhealth facilities. They hence went a step further and advocated thegarden cities’ creation that would meet cater for the housing andhealth needs of both the village and the city (Tamura, 1997). Theyalso advocated the cancelation of the modern cities’ filthiness aswell as the village life’s backwardness. They believed that withthe adoption of right policies nature will be brought in the citywhile in the countryside modern conveniences will be enhanced.


Civilizationis very essential. It is not right for people to lead a primitivelive. However, it is essential noting that people are alwaysresistant to change. The reformers and the revolutionaries need to beaggressive enough to make sure that civilization is realized.However, they should also take caution to make sure that onlypositive aspects of civilization are adopted leaving behind thenegative ones. However, the bottom-line of the whole issue is that acivilization is important and should be embraced by everyonewholeheartedly.


Ebrey,P. B. (2010).&nbspTheCambridge illustrated history of China.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tamura,E. (1997).&nbspChina:Understanding its past.Honolulu, Hawaii: Curriculum Research &amp Development Group,University of Hawaii and University of Hawaii Press.