Biology

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Exerciseone

Anepithelial tissue is meant for covering the entire body surface. Itis comprised of closely packed cells which are ranged in either oneor more layers. The tissue is specifically for lining or covering allthe internal as well as external body surfaces. The epithelial tissuefound on the body’s interior is referred to as endothelium. Asimple epithelium has different subdivisions based on cell’s shapeand function. The divisions include squamous or pavement epithelium,simple cuboidal, simple columnar, stratified, ciliated columnar, andglandular epithelium.

  1. Importance of Histology study

Histologyenables the understanding of size, shape and structure of tissueswhich in turn offers clues about each tissue’s function. It alsoenables understanding of how each structure and its function arerelated thus enabling one to understand the overall organ’sfunction (Zhang,1998).&nbsp

  1. Naming of epithelial tissues

Thenaming of epithelial tissues is done according to the cell shape andcell arrangement (Lecuit,2009).&nbsp

  1. Stratification of some epithelial tissues

Themain aim of stratification also called layering is to provideadditional support for particular organs (Lecuit,2009).

  1. Unlike squamous cells, cuboidal and columnar cells have large, open cytoplasm. Which functions of epithelial tissue are supported by having such big cells?

Secretionand storage of material are epithelial functions supported by bigcells (Lecuit,2009).

Exercisetwo

Theconnective tissue tends to fill spaces between tissues and organs. Itprovides metabolic and structural support for other organs andtissues. It is made of extracellular matrix and cells. Theextracellular matrix is made up of polysaccharide matrix, fibers in aprotein, organized and secreted by cells in the extracellular matrix.The variation in extracellular matrix’s composition tends todetermine the connective tissue properties. They are broadlyclassified into two, the connective tissue proper and specializedconnective tissue.

  1. The primary function of connective tissue

Connectingthe epithelium to the rest of the remaining body is one of connectivetissue’s basic functions. It also stores energy, provides structureand transports material (Mathews,1975).

  1. What can the shape of the cells in a particular type of tissue tell about the function of that tissue?

Thecellular shape can offer clues about the tissues function while theflat cells line or protect. Large, open cells tend to store orsecrete materials. Elongated fibrous cells are for support or protect(Mathews,1975).

  1. What is a matrix? Why do some tissues have more than others?

Matrixis defined as filler material that is usually made of proteins. Sometissues such as connective tissues tend to have more matrixes to beable to protect as well as support. That is for increased strength(Mathews,1975).

  1. What do collagen fiber provide?

Thecollagen fiber provides flexibility and support (Mathews,1975).

  1. Tendons, ligaments and cartilage have limited blood supply. Explain how this might affect the ability of these tissues to heal after an injury?

Bloodtends to deliver oxygen and nutrients to cells. Limited blood supplytends to slow the healing process because fewer oxygen and nutrientscan be delivered so as to promote the tissue repair (Mathews,1975).

Exercisethree

  1. Type of muscle found in the stomach

Thesmooth Muscle (Houghton,2007).

  1. How is smooth muscle structure different from that of skeletal and cardiac muscle?

Thesmooth muscle tends to lack striations while its cells’ arrangementis parallel along very long fibers (Houghton,2007).

  1. Why is skeletal muscle voluntary?

Skeletalmuscle is considered voluntary because people have can control itsmovements (Houghton,2007).

  1. What is unique about cardiac muscle?

Thecardiac muscle has intercalated discs which tend to allow the cellsto communicate freely with each other (Houghton,2007).

Exercisefour

Allthe living cells possess the ability of reacting to stimuli. Nervoustissue is obligated to conduct impulses and react to stimuli tovarious body organs. The nerve tissue is composed of neurons theyare specialized nerve cells. The neurons get stimulated easily andtransmit impulses very fast. The neurons are classified into bipolar,unipolar and multipolar neurons..

  1. What is the function of nervous tissue?

Thenervous tissue acts as a signal transmitter from a person’s senseto the spinal cord and eventually to the brain for processing. Itthen returns the instruction to the body from the brain (Cormack,2001).&nbsp

  1. Why are the cell bodies of neurons elongated into cell processes?

Thecell bodies in the neurons are elongated so as to allow a singleneuron to convey a signal over a comparatively long distance(Cormack,2001).

  1. How is a nerve different from a neuron?

Aneuron is a cell while a nerve is a bundle of neurons. The nerveserves as a tissue in a given area of the body that responds and alsotransmit signals for their respective area to the spinal cord or/andthe brain (Cormack,2001).

Conclusion

Thepurpose of these exercises and the reason of studying histology isimportant to the understanding of how the human body functions.

Theseexercises’ purpose was naming and identifying the chief types oftissues in the human body. They were also meant for identifying thetissue’s subcategories and to manage to locate tissue types in thebody. The exercises were also meant to identify the chief functionsof each body tissues. Histology can be defined as a tissue`s study.The tissue’s study was essential in understanding the functioningof the human body. It also helps in understanding the physiology oforgan systems and organs (Zhang,1998).

Humanversus sheep brains

Boththe human and the sheep brains have two brain stems, two pons, twooptic nerves and two hemispheres. However, the human brain is roundedwhile the sheep brain tends to be elongated in shape.

Significanceof two brain hemispheres

Thebrain is presented into two hemispheres, the right and the lefthemispheres. Every hemisphere provides a set of varying functions,controls and behaviors. The right hemisphere is termed as the brain’screative side while the left one is the analytical or logical side ofthe brain.

Tasteand smell

Thesmells and tastes are the chemicals’ perception in the air or thefood. They are different senses each with its receptor organ. Smelland taste are however intimately entwined.

Describewhat a blind spot and optic disc are?

Blindspot is a visual field’s small portion of every eye thatcorresponds to the optic disc’s position within the retina. Theoptic disc, on the other hand, is defined as the exit point of theganglion cell axons that are leaving the eye.

Explainthe origin of visual afterimages?

Theafterimage is a visual illusion whereby retinal impressions persisteven after the stimulus removal. Afterimage is believed to be causedby a continued visual system’s activation.

Describethe relationship between hearing and balance?

Theinner part of the ear has significant influence on a human being’shearing and balance. The inner ear is comprised if complicated seriesof mechanisms and tubes. Sound is registered by the sensory cellsthat are located in the fluid-filled cochlea which tends to transformthese sound waves to electrical impulses that are later sent to thebrain by the connecting nerve. Movement tends to be detected byvestibular system, which incorporates a network of canals and tubes.Information about movement also tends to be transmitted to the brainvia these electrical impulses.

References

Cormack,D. H. (2001).&nbspEssentialhistology.Philadelphia [u.a.: Lippincott Williams &amp Wilkins.

Houghton,G. (2007).&nbspMuscles:The muscular system.New York: PowerKids Press.

Lecuit,T. (2009).&nbspTissueremodeling and epithelial morphogenesis.San Diego: Elsevier/Academic Press.

Mathews,M. B. (1975).&nbspConnectivetissue: Macromolecular structure and evolution.Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Zhang,S. (1998).&nbspAnatlas of histology.New York: Springer.