Annotated Bibliography




Broman,C. L., Mavaddat, R., &amp Hsu, S. Y. (2000). The experience andconsequences of perceived racial discrimination: A study of AfricanAmericans. Journalof Black Psychology,26(2),165-180.

Thisis a research paper that talks about the experiences that people ofcolor and other minorities go through in their everyday life in thecontext of the American society. The authors look into other researchmaterials that look that demonstrate different incidents that arelinked to the experience of racism-related distress. Through theirdescriptions it is clear that there is a close association betweenracial discrimination and psychological distress among targetedminorities. This is a relevant source of invaluable information forthe research because it brings out the problem of racialdiscrimination as a contemporary challenge in the American society.Evidence of stress related to racial discrimination is an importantpointer how the problem is not yet over after years of civil rightsactivism. However, the book does not undermine the milestones thatAmericans have made over years in their pursuit of a racially justsociety.

Clark,R., Anderson, N. B., Clark, V. R., &amp Williams, D. R. (1999).Racism as a stressor for African Americans: A biopsychosocial model.Americanpsychologist,54(10),805.

Thisresearch paper is similar to the first one in terms of relevance andcontent. The concurrence is in the fact that it specifically looks atracism and discrimination as a significant stressor of theAfrican-American society. Through a comprehensive biopsychosocialmodel, the authors conceptualize and describe racism by providingevidence of cases of racism and discrimination. Thereafter, theydiscuss the varied psycho-social effects that emanate from intergroupand intergroup racism among the black the community. The discussionestablishes a realistic model that has thought-provoking insights onthe subject. Thus, it is another important source of information fora problem that has evolved into other covert ways that are nascenttactics that existed before and during the civil rights movements.

Sue,D. W., Capodilupo, C. M., Torino, G. C., Bucceri, J. M., Holder, A.,Nadal, K. L., &amp Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial microaggressions ineveryday life: implications for clinical practice. Americanpsychologist,62(4),271.

Thejournal supports the view that racism and discrimination is still achallenging reality that the American society should contend. Theauthors narrow down to commonplace actions, which they refer to as“microagressions”, which communicate the perpetrator’sintention to discriminate and demean a member of the coloredcommunity. They also emphasize that some of these microagressionscould unintentionally constitute racist communication because of theyare severely entrenched in the American society. Hence, the journalcreates a taxonomy of actions that constitute microagressions formtheir own review of different literature that talk aboutpsycho-social aspects of racism in contemporary America. They alsocreate the taxonomy from real-life narratives from counselors andpersonal confessions from victims.

Utsey,S. O., Ponterotto, J. G., Reynolds, A. L., &amp Cancelli, A. A.(2000). Racial discrimination, coping, life satisfaction, andself‐esteemamong African Americans. Journalof Counseling &amp Development,78(1),72-80.

Infurther stressing the fact that racism and discrimination is still amodem challenge in the American society. The authors explain aresearch they carried out about the coping mechanisms that people ofcolor use to cope with the humiliation and stress of racism. Theirfindings are vital to this research subject because they usedifferent scientific methods to demonstrate how the two genders copewith racism and discrimination. They subject 213 men and women to acoping strategy indicator, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, the index ofRace-related Stress, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Theresults reveal a difference in men and women, with women preferringavoidance strategies.

Arrow,K. J. (1998). What has economics to say about racial discrimination?.TheJournal of Economic Perspectives,91-100.

Thejournal has a different view of racial discrimination that tends touse complex socio-social explanations to justify it. The authorsfocus on racism and discrimination amongst economic institutions.Furthermore, they state factors that opponents should consider beforehaving any sympathetic views to minorities. Although the authorsagree that racism and discrimination still affects contemporaryAmerica, they do so that seems to oppose the subtle ways thateconomic institutions constantly use to allocate productivityqualities for African Americans and whites. The discussions of thisresearch exercise are therefore, on the backdrop these opposing viewsso that it reflects the position of the theme.