Anatomy and Physiology Lab


Anatomyand Physiology Lab

Whatis the purpose of this exercise?

Thepurpose of this exercise is to uncover the different membranes,combinations, and their functions.

  1. What is keratin? A specialized protein that provides the protective barrier required by the skin.

  2. Why is the skin keratinized? It protects the body from 70% of all infectious bacteria and viruses it gets into contact with.

Compareand contrast the roles of the three mucous membranes

Mucousmembranes are composed of epithelial that are on top of theconnection tissues. Serous membranes are epithelial cells attached tosmall amounts of areola connective tissues. These membranes are saidto be unique since they crop up in layers of two. Synovial membranescomprise entirely of connective tissues found lining joint cavities,and they assist create smooth surface movement for the joints.

Whatis the role of mucous in the body?

Mucousare in the body to protect it from invaders, for instance, bacteria,viruses, and other outside matter that can harm the body system.

Whatis the function of the synovial membrane?

Thesynovial membrane facilitates the provision of smooth surfaces forthe movement of joints.

Rheumatoidarthritis results in part from an infection and immune response&nbspinthe synovialmembrane.What effect does this have on the ability of this membrane to carryout its functions?

Thismembrane is met to secrete synovial fluid that aid in the lubricationand reduction of friction between bones in different joints. In caseof an infection in the membrane, there results in surfaces that arenot so smooth affecting the movement of joints consequently, causingpains, aches, and discomforts associated with rheumatoid arthritis(Clark, 2005).


Researchpleurisy, peritonitis, and pericarditis. What are these conditionsand how do they affect homeostasis in the body?

Pleurisy-this is the inflation of the linings of the lungs and the chest,leading to chest pain whenever the individual breathes or coughs.

Peritonitis-this is an inflammation of the tissues lining the inner walls of theabdomen and covering majority of abdominal organs. Usually it causespainful belly and tender.

Pericarditis-this is the condition through which the pericardium, which is a saclike covering around the heart becomes inflamed. This results tochest pains and sometimes the neck, shoulders, back, and abdomenexperiences pains as well.

Aninflammation of these parts of the body disallows them to functionproperly, thus, they are unable to properly protect the body frominventions or harm.


Whatis the purpose of this exercise?

Thepurpose of this exercise is to establish if there are any safetyconcerns associated with the exercise, and what precautions can betaken against them.


Asyou observe the skull, explain how the structure of the suturesbetween the cranial bones is related to the overall function of thecranium.

Atbirth, flat plates join by sutures. The sutures serve the purpose ofallowing the skull to pass through the canal and facilitate braingrowth, and end up fusing together to form an adult skull.

Whyare synarthroses an important component of fibrous joints?

Becausethey allow virtually no movement, they happen to be rigid andimmovable like the joints in the skull.

Cartilaginousjoints exhibit amphiarthroses. Why is this important?

Theyallow the bones to connect and make movement, ensuring provision ofstability, support, cushioning and weight bearing.

Structurally,how are cartilaginous joints similar?

Theyeither immovable or slightly movable

Whichtype of synovial joint has the least amount of movement?


Whyare diarthroses important for synovial joints?

Becausethey are joints where two bones are bound together by the help of ajoint capsule, forming a joint cavity. The synovial fluid is found inthe synovial joints.

Whichsynovial joint is most movable?


Whatare the four structural characteristics that all synovial jointsshare?

Twolayered articular capsule, the synovial membrane, hyaline cartilage,and Bursae.

Whichof the body movements that you performed for Exercise 4 was the mostdifficult to perform? Why?

Thehip rotation is the most difficult due the limited range of motion.

Hingejoints like the elbow and knee have limited movement. Why are thesetypes of joints more prone to injury?

Thisis because they can only move in two directions, as such, forceapplied from a different direction results to injury.

Whenperforming flexion on the arm, the biceps muscle (on the anteriorof&nbspthe arm) contracts. What happens to the triceps muscle (onthe posterior of&nbspthe arm) as this action is performed?

Theyretract as this happens

Boththe shoulder and the hip are ball and socket joints. Why does theshoulder have a greater range of motion than the hip?

Thehip joint is far much deeper than the shoulder joint. The hip jointis meant to be stable for its bearing function, on the other hand,the shoulder joint is meant for motility.


A.What effect will the tearing of a tendon have on its correspondingmuscle?

Thecorresponding muscle will shrink because of the decreased tendonactivity.

B.Why are ligaments harder to heal than tendons?

Theirblood supply is limited

C.Compare and contrast tendons and ligaments.

Bothare develop from dense connective tissue, both offer stabilizationfor synovial joints however, tendons have a better blood supply thanligaments.

D.What is the function of fascia?

Holdingthe skin to the muscle

E.What effect would the loss of articular cartilage have on a joint,its bones and their corresponding muscles?

Lossof cartilage will make movements in the joint stiff and painful.


Explainhow skin, bones, and muscles are related to each other. Why is thisrelationship important to the understanding of the skeletal andmuscular systems?

Musclesare what aid the bones to move and function properly, while the skinoffers protection. This is important since without any of theseaspects, we would not function properly.


Whatis the purpose of this exercise?

Tocreate a substitution lab report


A.What is the function of a neuron?

Thefunction of the neuron is to carry and transmit electrical impulsesgenerated by both internal and external stimuli.

B.What is the difference between a neuron and a nerve?

Nervesare organizes bundles of nervous system cells and the bundles areassigned specific areas of the body, from where they receive andtransmit information. On the other hand, neurons are specializedcells in the nervous system designed to carry and transit electricalimpulses generated by both internal and external stimuli.

C.What gives a multipolar neuron its name?

Fromthe many branches, processes, and extensions that come off their cellbodies.

D.What are the functions of the dendrites and axons?

Dendritesserve the function of receiving incoming signals for the nerve cells,while axons are the branches from the cell body carrying the outgoingsignals of cells to other cells in the body, which is inclusive ofother neurons.


A.Describe the functions of the following parts of a nerve:

1.Endoneurium-this is a layer of a delicate connective tissue encloses the myelinsheath of the nerve fiber within fasciculus.

2.Epineurium- theouter most layer of the connective tissue that surrounds theperipheral nerve.

3.Perineurium- itcomprises of connective tissues, a protective sheath surroundingbundled fascicle

4.Fascicle- thisis a small bundle of nerve fibers, enclosed by perineurium.

B.What is a nerve?

Acable-like bundle of peripheral axons carrying sensory to CNS andmotor from CNS

C.Differentiate the central nervous system from the peripheral nervoussystem.

TheCNS is the brain of the spinal cord, while the PNS contains all thenerves and ganglia for the nerves they can be considered as motor,sensory, or autonomic.


Describethe structure of nervous tissue and relate it to its function

Nervoustissue is responsible for sensing of stimuli and transmitting signalsto and from different parts of an organism. Neurons are the basicunits of nervous tissue and it consists of two major parts, that isthe cell body, and nerve processes the axons and dendrites.


A.Which of the four major areas of the brain (cerebrum, diencephalon,cerebellum and brain stem) was obviously much larger in the humanbrain diagram than in the sheep brain? Why do these structures differso dramatically?

TheHuman cerebrum is larger than the sheep this is due the highercortical function capability to match needs. Other are area arerelatively equally in the two species.

B.What is the significance of the size difference in the olfactorybulbs between humans and sheep?

Sheepare in need of heightened smell, whereas humans are primarilyvisually oriented and thus have a decreased need for a higherolfactory sensation.

C.The human cerebellum is split in half while the sheep cerebellum isone mass. Why does this structural difference exist?

Themore complex movements and coordination required by the humans.

D.What is the significance in the size difference between the sheep andhuman brain stems?

Thebrain stem acts as the major hub linking the various processes andactivities, humans bear complex sensory and motor requirements.

E.What is the function of the third ventricle, fourth ventricle,cerebellum, and brain stem?

Thethird ventricle protects the brain from trauma it is the pathway forthe circulation of cerebrospinal fluids. The fourth ventricle formsthe central canal of the spinal code and protects the brain fromtrauma. The cerebellum helps with fine movement coordination, balanceand equilibrium, and muscle tone. Finally, the brain stem plays thefunctions of alertness, arousal, breathing, blood pressure,digestion, heart rate, and other autonomic functions relayinginformation between the peripheral nerves and spinal cord to theupper parts of the brain (Clark, 2005).

F.In your own words, explain how (if) this exercise helped you betterunderstand brain anatomy.

Theexercise aided in the differentiation of brain anatomies betweendifferent species.


Fill in the following information about the twelve cranial nerves

Cranial Nerve Function &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp

Is it Sensory/ Motor/Both?

I. Olfactory






III. Oculomotor

Eye movement


IV. Trochlear

Eye movement


V. Trigeminal

Face and chewing


VI. Abducens

Eye movement


VII. Facial

Face and taste


VIII. Vestibulo ochlear

Balance and hearing


IX. Glossopharyngeal

Motor throat and posterior tongues


X. Vagus



XI. Accessory

Sternocleidomastoid and trapezium


XII. Hypoglossal

Tongue muscles


A.Which cranial nerves would be involved in the following activities?

Smellinga flower: olfactory

Shruggingyour shoulders:accessory

Tastingfreshly baked cookies: facial

Slowingyour heart rate:&nbspVagus

B. name the major spinal nerves that serve the areas indicated.

Body Area


Head, neck, shoulders (plexus only)

Cervical plexus



Posterior thigh


Anterior thigh


Arm muscles


Anterior forearm


Abdominal wall


Medial side of the hand


Leg and foot


C.Use the information from the Anatomy and Physiology textbook todefine a plexus.

Plexusis a network of intersecting blood vessels or intersecting nerve orintersecting lymph




Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Stimulates adrenal cortex

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Stimulates water re-absorption by kidneys

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

Egg and sperm production, sex hormone


Growth hormone (GH)

Cell division, protein synthesis and bone growth

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Stimulates female sex characteristics

Melanocyte stimuluting hormone (MSH)

Controls circadian and circannual rhythms,

possibly involved in maturation of sexual organs


Stimulates uterine muscle contractions and

release of milk by mammary glands

Prolactin (PRL)

Milk production

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

Stimulates thyroid



A.Describe the function of the endocrine system.

Thefunction of the endocrine system is to control the system of ductsthat secrete hormones with specific organs. Also, it provides anelectrochemical connection from the hypothalamus of the brain to allorgans controlling body metabolism, growth, development, andreproduction.

B.What is a gland?

Agland is the hormonal realizing substance in the endocrine system.Major glands include hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid,adrenals, pineal body, and the reproductive organs.

C.Describe how negative feedback regulates the secretion of mosthormones.

Increasesin hormone activity decrease the production of that hormone.

D.Why is the pituitary gland called the “master endocrine gland”?

Itis referred to as the master gland because it is the main place foreverything that happens within the endocrine system.


A.What is the overall function of the thyroid gland?

Theproduction of the hormones T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine),these hormones increase the metabolic activities of the body cells.Also, produce and realizes the hormone calcitonin that contributes toregulation of blood calcium levels (Starr et al, 2006).

B.What is the function of thyroxin?

Thyroxine(T4) hormone increase the metabolic activity of the body‘s cells

C.What is the function of triiodothyronine?

Triiodothyronine(T3) hormone increase the metabolic activity of the body‘s cells

D.What is the function of calcitonin?

Contributesto the regulation of blood calcium levels

E.What is hyperthyroidism? What are its effects on the body?

Hyperthyroidismis a syndrome from excess of iodine in the diet, during earlydevelopment it leads to cretinism, in adults, it produces myxedema,characterized by obesity and lethargy, and leads to the conditionknown as exophthalmic goiter characterized by weight loss andirritable behavior.


A.What does parathyroid hormone (PTH) do?

Regulatesthe body`s calcium and phosphorus levels, and secrete parathyroidhormone that realizes calcium present in bones.

B.Based on your answer to Question A, can you live without yourparathyroid&nbspglands? Why or why not?

No.This is because the gland plays a vital role as it removes calciumfrom its storage sites and realizes it into the blood stream, inaddition, it signals the small intestines to absorb more mineralstransporting from diet into the blood. As such we cannot live withoutparathyroid glands.


A.What does the hormone thymosin do?

Stimulatesproduction and maturation of T lymphocytes

B.Based on your answer to question a, explain why the thymus glandshrinks as we reach adulthood.

Thegland trains the T cells during childhood, and since the immunesystem requires very few new T cells after puberty, the thymus glandfunctionality is reduced resulting to its shrink in size.


A.The adrenal glands are in part controlled by the sympatheticand&nbspparasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervoussystem.&nbspName the hormones involved in this regulation and thefunctions of each.

AdrenalMedulla in the case of sympathetic realizes hormones with the effectsbeing the short term provision of responses to stress, also referredto as the fight-or-flight response. An excessive secretion of theglucocorticoids brings about the cushing syndrome that canconsequently lead to high blood pressure

B.Where in the adrenal gland are mineralocorticoids made?

Inthe AdrenalCortex

C.What are the functions of mineralocorticoids? Give an example of amineralocorticoid hormone.

Thefunctions include reabsorbing sodium and excrete potassium forexample steroids.

D.Where in the adrenal glands are glucocorticoids made?

Inthe Adrenal Cortex

E.What are the functions of glucocorticoids? Give an example of aglucocorticoid.

Theirfunctions include raising blood glucose level, and stimulatesbreakdown of protein, for example, is steroids.


A.Explain the difference between an exocrine gland and an endocrinegland.

Theysecrete two hormones, the beta cells secrete insulin the alpha cellssecrete glucagon with both determining the blood sugar levels.

B.What is the exocrine function of the pancreas?

Theexocrine portion secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum via thepancreatic duct.

C.What endocrine hormones does the pancreas produce? What is thefunction of each?

Insulinlowers glucose levels in the blood, and glucagon, which increaseshepatic synthesis of glucose from pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, andamino acids increasing the breakdown of adipose tissue triglyceride,thereby raising the plasma levels of fatty acids and glycerol.

D.Diabetes is a serious health problem in the United States. Explainwhat&nbspdiabetes is and the differences between the Type 1 and Type2 forms of the disease

Diabetesis a condition resulting from Insulin decency referred to as diabetesmellitus. Type 1 or juvenile diabetes the pancreases does not producesufficient insulin, and it is treated via insulin injection. In type2 or maturity onset diabetes, the pancreases produces insufficientinsulin, however, the target cell fails to respond to it.


A.What are the endocrine functions of the testes?

Toproduce androgens, that is testosterone, which is classified as asteroid.

B.What does testosterone do?

Theyare responsible for the development of the different physicalcharacteristics in male such as the muscular body and broadshoulders.

C.What are the endocrine functions of the ovaries?

Toproduce estrogen and progesterone

D.What do estrogen and progesterone do?

Estrogenincreases at the time of puberty and causes the growth of the uterusand vagina. In addition, they are responsible for also responsiblefor the development of secondary sex characteristics such as femalebody hair and fat distribution. Progesterone prepares the lining ofthe uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and allows forcomplete shedding of the endometrial at the time of menstruation.

E.How do birth control pills work in terms of endocrine function?

Whereovulation has occurred, estrogen and progesterone work together toprevent additional ovulation during pregnancy. Birth control pillstake the same course in regulating hormonal levels.


A.Describe the effects that a malfunctioning pituitary gland would haveon an&nbspindividual?

Anindividual would be completely have a malfunctioned endocrine systemsince the master gland would faulty which is the central point foreverything that happening in the endocrine system.

B.Which endocrine glands would be most affected by prolonged mentalstress on the body? (i.e work, lack of time, worrying etc.) Explainyour reasoning.

Whenconfronted with stress, the hypothalamus signals the pituitary gland,stimulating it to produce adrenocorticopic hormone (ACTH). ACTH isthen released into the blood stream and reaches the adrenal glands.ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce corticoids andepinephrine allowing the body to acquire energy from reserves in thebody. With the passing of the stress the body returns to the normalstate of homeostasis through a negative loop. Nevertheless, continuedstressors do allow the body to return to a balanced state, thisintern leads to a high cortisol level which intern lead to high bloodpressure, the hardening of arteries, diabetes, muscle atrophy, andosteoporosis (Clark, 2005).

C.Explain, in general, how a hormone works.

Hormonesare chemical messenger in the body, starting at the bloodstreampassing messages to organs or tissues. Therefore, they areresponsible for movement of messages from cells over to glandsensuring chemical levels are stable in the bloodstream.


A.What are the components of blood?

Bloodis consists of a liquid position known as the plasma, and solidpotions that include the red and white blood cells, and platelets.

B.What is the function of red blood cells?

Redblood cells carry oxygen to the cells and help in the transportationof carbon dioxide back to the lungs for exhalation.

C.List the five types of leukocytes and describe the function of each

Neutrophilsor granulocytes attack in infections before white blood cells.

Monocytes-the prime purpose is to help with the immune defense and rebuildingdamaged tissue.

Eosinophils-protect the body by swallowing and killing bacteria.

Basophils-multiple in number when the body has an infection and accumulates atthe infection site, discharging serotonin and histamines to helpincrease blood flow and decrease inflammation

Lymphocytes-they help the body immune system, consisting of B and T cells,whereby B realize antibodies into the body fluids, while T cellsdirectly attack viruses.


A.Describe how the ABO blood typing system works.

Thesystem consists of A, B, AB, and O blood types. Those with type Ahave A antibodies in the blood against type B. those with B haveantibodies in blood against type A. individuals with AB lack anti-Aor anti B antibodies, while those with O have both A and Bantibodies. As such AB individuals are universal recipients sincethey can receive any of ABO types, while types O are universal donorssince their blood can be given to any of ABO types (Clark, 2005).

B.Why is it important for everyone to know their own blood type?

Itis important for everyone to know their blood type to avoid gettingthe wrong blood in case of a transfusion, since the wrong blood typecan cause a severe reaction and may even cause death.

C.Describe what would happen if type A blood were transfused into aperson with type B blood.

Peoplewith blood type A have antibodies against type B and the vise verseis true, in a case of such a transfusion, there can lead to severetransfusion reaction.

D.What happens in the blood of an Rh-negative individual who is exposedto Rh-positive blood?

Rh-negativecannot receive Rh-positive blood, they would experience a transfusionreaction that would be life threatening.


Exercise1: Anatomy of Cardiac Muscle

A.What are some unique structural features of cardiac muscle?

Intercalateddiscs acting as connectors between two adjacent cardiac cells

B.What are intercalated discs and what do they do?

Intercalateddiscs are connectors between two adjacent cardiac cells and they helpmultiple cardiac muscles cells contract rapidly.

C.Why does cardiac muscle have to be both elastic and strong?

Theyhave both elastic and strong to support them when they stretch andcontract powerfully especially when ventricles are filled theystretch beyond their normal resting capacity, resulting to morepowerful contraction forcing a maximum amount of blood from theventricles into the arteries.

Exercise2: The Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits (Clark,2005)

A.Trace the flow of blood through the pulmonary and systemic circuits.Begin in the right atrium and end in the superior/inferior vena cava.Be sure to list&nbspevery vessel, heart chamber, and heart valve theblood flows through.

  • Venules

  • Veins

  • Inferior vena cava &amp superior vena cava

  • Right atrium

  • Tricuspid valve

  • Right Ventricle

  • Pulmonary semi lunar valve

  • Pulmonary arteries

  • Lungs

  • Pulmonary veins

  • Left atrium

  • Mitral valve

  • Left ventricle

  • Aortic semi lunar valve

  • Arteries

  • Arterioles

  • Capillaries

B.Explain what you learned from the online human heart dissection

Ilearned how the heart works, how big it is, and learned where thedifferent veins and ventricles are located.

Exercise3: Sheep Heart Dissection/ etal Pig Comparison

A.Compare the structure of the fetal pig and sheep heart. How are theysimilar? How are they different?

Asthe pig is a mammal, many aspects of its structural and functionalorganization are similar to those of the other mammals, includinghumans. And the sheep is similar too, justice humans it has a fourchamber heart. The study of a fetal pig is in a very real sense astudy of humans.

B.Why is the heart referred to as a double pump?

Becausea heart entails to pumps, one containing oxygenated blood and anotherpumping deoxygenated blood and divided by a thick wall referred to asthe septum.

C.There are four valves in the heart. Name each valve, list itslocation and&nbspgive its function.

Tricuspidvalve- closes upper right chamber, holding blood coming in from thebody. It opens to allow blood flow from top right chamber to lowerright chamber, and prevents backflows from ventricle to the atriumwhenever blood is pumped out of the ventricle.

Pulmonaryvalve- lower right chamber where it opens to allow blood to be pumpedfrom the heart to the lungs via the pulmonary artery.

Mitralvalve- upper left chamber where it closes it collecting theoxygenated blood from the lungs, also, it opens allowing it to passfrom upper left side to lower left side.

Aorticvalve- in the lower left chamber, it closes it holding oxygenatedblood and opening to allow the blood to live the heart (Anderson,2013).

D.Compare the left and right sides of the dissected heart. Whatdifferences do you see?

Theleft side of the heart sends oxygenated blood to the rest of thebody this side is bigger to accommodate blood from the lungs, andhas stronger muscles to pump it to the rest of the body, therefore,the left side has thicker myocardium.

E.Compare and contrast the functions of the atria and the ventricles.

Atriaand ventricles work as a team, whereby, the atria fill with blood andpump it to the ventricles. On their part the ventricles pump bloodout of the heart as the atria refill waiting for the nextcontraction.

F.Where is the myocardium located?

Thisis the middle and muscular layer of the heart made up contractingspontaneous cardiac muscle fibers.

G.How does the heart supply blood to its own cells?

Theheart has its own set of blood vessels to supply its cells with freshoxygenated blood.



A.Describe the three layers of the wall of an artery.

Arteryhave three layers or tunics, that is, an outer layer called thetunica adventitia a connective tissue with collagen fibers, themiddle layer of circular arranged muscles that are elastic called thetunica media, and the tunica intima the innermost layer consisting ofendothelial cells (Anderson, 2013).

B.How do arterial walls differ from venous walls?

Arterialwalls are made of elastic material and they are always open, on theother hand venous walls are mainly smooth muscle, and they areusually collapsed.

C.What is the function of valves in the peripheral veins?

Valveshelp the blood to go in one direction against gravity up towards theheart preventing it from relaxing down.

D.Why are arteries deeper than veins in the body

Arteriesare vital in the continuation of blood flow to the body, as such,they are deeper in the body so they can stay protected, and keptwarmer allowing the best flow of blood.


A.Name the major artery and vein that deliver and drain blood to andfrom the&nbsphead.

Carotidarteries supply blood to the head and neck. Blood from the head istaken back to the heart by internal and external jugular vein,subclavian vein, brachiocephalic vein, and ends up into the superiorvena cava vein entering the heart.

B.Name the blood vessels that deliver and drain blood to and from theheart.

Thisis done by the major arteries leaving the heart, which include aorta,pulmonary trunk, arterial duct, and pulmonary arteries. The majorveins entering the heart include anterior vena cava and posteriorvena cava.

C.Describe the branching of the aorta as it leaves the heart. Wheredoes it go?

Asthe aorta takes blood away from the heart, branching in differentarteries that take blood to different parts of the body, theyinclude carotid arteries taking blood to neck and head, coronaryarteries supplying heart with the blood, the hepatic artery takingblood to the liver, mesenteric artery delivering blood to theintestines, the renal arteries to the kidney, and femoral arteriestaking blood to the legs.

D.Name the major arteries and veins that deliver and drain blood to andfrom&nbspthe upper appendages

Theleft subclavian artery supplies blood to the shoulder area. Axillaryartery supplies blood to the upper arm while brachial artery supplyupper arm region below the elbow. The radial artery supply lateralside of the forearm, ulnar artery supply media side of the forearm,and palmar arches supplies hand and fingers. Palmar venous archesdrain hands and fingers while cephalic veins empty into auxiliaryvein. The medin cubital vein connects cephalic and basic vein at theelbow. Radial veins drain lateral side of the forearm and ulnar veindrains medial side of the forearm. Axillary vein drains vein theaxillary area and empties into axillary vein, finally, the subclavianvein drain blood from the shoulder (Anderson, 2013).

E.Name the major arteries and veins that deliver and drain blood to andfrom the lower appendages.

Thefemoral arteries take blood to the legs. They further branches to theright and left iliac arteries that supplies pelvic organs. Thefemoral artery supply the thighs, popliteal artery supply the knee,while the tibial arteries supply areas below the knee. The plantaarches supplies the foot and toes. The plantar venous arches veindrain feet and toes, while the anterior and posterior tibial veinsreturns to the heart blood from below the knee. Femoral veins drainthe thigh. The external ilica vein drain the groin, internal iliacvein drain pelvic organs. External and internal iliac vein form theinterior vena cava entering the heart (Anderson, 2013).

F.What is the large vein that enters the liver? Where do its branchesoriginate&nbspfrom?

Thelarge vein entering the liver is hepatic portal vein, carrying blooddrained from spleen, gastrointestinal tract, and other associatedorgans. The vein has blood containing absorbed nutrients from food.

G.Name the major artery and vein that deliver and drain blood to andfrom the kidneys.

Therenal arteries are the main arteries supplying blood to the kidney,the right and left renal arteries supply blood to each kidney. Therenal veins drain blood from the kidneys.

H.What are the differences (if any) you noticed between the majorarteries&nbspand veins in the human versus those in the pig?

Interms of blood supply between pigs and humans it is clear that pigshave a larger internal thoracid and subscpular arteries compared tohumans, providing for an extensive flow of blood.


Dosome research on the internet about deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Whatis this condition? What causes it? How can it be treated? Write areport about your findings and be sure to include the sources youused for your research.

Deepvein thrombosis or DVT is the condition leading to the formation ofblood clots in deep veins. The condition is a form of inflammation ofthe veins that leads to clot formation with the condition mostlyaffecting leg veins like the femoral vein or the pelvis veins. It isformed by mechanisms including decreases in blood flow the damagedblood vessel wall or due to increase tendency of formation of bloodclots (Anderson, 2013).


Exercise1: Anatomy of the Respiratory System

A.What are the two functions of the larynx?

Preventionof the passage of food into the airways during swallowing andregulating the flow of air into the lungs

B.Where does gas exchange take place in the lungs?

Takesplace in the alveoli or air sacs where the exchange of oxygen andcarbon dioxide takes place by diffusion.

C.Trace a breath of air from the nose through to the alveoli. Name allthe&nbspstructures the air will pass through

  • External nares

  • nasal cavity

  • internal nares

  • nasopharynx

  • oropharynx

  • laryngopharynx

  • larynx

  • trachea

  • primary bronchus

  • secondary bronchus

  • tertiary bronchus

  • bronchiole

  • terminal bronchiole

  • respiratory bronchiole

  • alveolar duct

  • alveolar sac

  • alveolus

D.Why is the trachea ciliated?

Totrap debris that we inhale, and passed to the larynx to be eitherswallowed, sneezed, or coughed out.

E.What are goblet cells and where are they located?

Theyare scattered among the epithelial lining of organs such as theintestinal and respiratory tracts. They are located inside thetrachea, bronchus, and larger bronchioles in the respiratory tract.


A.What characteristics of normal lung tissue are missing from diseasedtissue?

Thetwo main characteristic missing in diseased heart compliance andelasticity, compliance allows expanding and elasticity the formallowing it to go to former form.

B.How do environmental factors affect the health of lung tissues?

Whenexchanging carbon dioxide for oxygen, the lungs can easily contractinfectious bacteria in the air can affect the health your lungs,causing inflammation of lung tissue consequently making breathing aproblem.

C.What is Cystic Fibrosis and what specific tissues in the lung does itaffect?

Cysticfibrosis is a life threatening genetic disease that primarily affectsthe lungs and digestive system. Mucus clogs the lungs making it verydifficult to breath and traps bacteria in air waves leading toinfections and inflammation.

D.What is Emphysema and what specific tissues in the lung does itaffect?

Thisdisease of the lungs develops after many years of smoking it affectsthe lungs by affecting their alveoli.

TheConducting and Respiratory Zones

A.What are the structural adaptations of the nasal cavity that allow itto carry&nbspout its functions?

Nasalhairs act as filters to keep dust and dirt out of the nasal passagein addition, it is lined with mucus membrane all that aids infiltering of air before entering the lungs.

B.What are the structural adaptations of the larynx that allow it tocarry out its&nbspfunctions?

Larynxhas cartilage bound by ligaments and muscles. At the front is thethyroid cartlage, which forms the Adam’s apple. The inferior hornsof the thyroid cartilage rest on the ring-shaped cricoid cartilagewhich connects the larynx to the trachea. Above the larynx is thehyoid bone that connects to the jaw and skull, the muscles moves thelarynx during swallowing. The epiglottis consists of cartilageextending upwards behind the back of the tongue and projects downthrough the hyoid bone. It connects to the thyroid cartilage justbeneath the thyroid notch (Stevens and Hume, 2004).

C.What are the structural adaptations of the trachea that allow it tocarry out&nbspits functions?

Thetrachea is lined with ciliated cells which push particles out, andcartilage rings which reinforce the trachea and prevent it fromcollapsing on it during breathing. These numerous cartilaginoushalf-rings, located one above the other along the trachea, have openends adjacent to the esophagus, the rings are located one above theother along the trachea, and have open ends adjacent to theesophagus.

D.What are the structural adaptations of the alveolus that allow it tocarry out&nbspits functions?

Thealveoli consist of an epithelial layer and extracellular matrixsurrounded by capillaries. While in some alveoli walls there arepores between alveoli, alveoli comprise of Type I cells that form thestructure of an alveolar wall, and Type II cells that secretesurfactant to lower the surface tension of water.

E.Compare the function of the conducting and respiratory zones.

Conductingzone consists of the mouth, nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchion the other hand Respiratory zone consists of the respiratorybronchioles and alveoli. The conducting zone warms the incoming airwhile in the respiratory zone oxygen is uploaded into theerythrocytes from the alveoli and transported throughout the body.

IdentifyingRespiratory Structures on the Fetal Pig

A.Name the lobes of the pig’s lungs.

Theapical, cardiac, diaphragmatic, and a fourth smaller lobe below theapex of the heart called the intermediate

B.How many pairs of ribs does your pig have? How many do humans have?

14ribs while the human has 24 ribs

C.Why do the pig’s trachea and bronchi contain cartilage rings?

Keepthem from collapsing as the animal inhales and exhales.

D.Describe the structure of the pig’s larynx.

Thelarynx allows the pig to produce sounds – grunts and oinks. It is alarge hard structure attached to the trachea is the containing thevocal chords.

E.What is pneumonia?

Thisis along inflammation caused by bacteria or viral infection, wherebythe air sac fills with pus and it may solidify.

F.&nbspDescribe the texture and arrangement of the pig’s lungs.

Thelungs in fetal pig are small and fairly solid since they have neverbeen used inflated. When inflated the lungs gain a spongy appearance.

G.Describe the structural differences you observed between the fetalpig&nbsplungs and those of the dissected human lungs online.

Thestudy of the fetal pig is in a very real sense, a study of humans,whereby both humans and pigs have multi-lobed lungs.


Explainhow allergies, the common cold or influenza change the structures ofthe respiratory system and cause a decrease in gas exchange

Thisbacteria cause extreme muscle spasms in the lungs that either narrowor close the bronchioles. This results to tightness in the chestresulting to difficulty in breathing. In addition cold bacteria causeinflammation of the mucus membrane lining the nose and the nasalcavity decreasing gas exchange in the process.


Pleaseexplain the purpose of this lab. Include in your explanation themajor concepts you learned and any safety concerns associated withthe lab.

Wall Layer

Major Function


Secrete – mucus, digestive enzymes, and hormones,

Absorb- the end products of digestion into the blood

Protect against infectious disease


Entails a rich supply of blood and lymphatic vessels, lymphoid follicles, and nerve fibers which supply the surrounding tissues of the GI tract wall.

Muscularis Externa

Responsible for segmentation and peristalsis

Serosa or Advantitia

Outermost layer of the intraperitoneal organs


A.Compare the columnar epithelium from the stomach to that ofthe&nbspduodenum. How is each modified to carry out a specificfunction?

Theepithelium has two has two types of cells, that is the goblet andoxyntic and it is modified to produce mucus that protects themembrane from corrosive effects of HCl being produced by the oxynticcells. On the other hand, the duodenum membrane produces only somemucus for lubrication of the food.

B.What are the structural modifications you saw in the salivary glandsthat&nbspallow them to carry out their function?

Thelargest modification is the parotid gland and the submandibular glandempties contents by the submandibular duct.

C.Where can you find Kupffer cells and what do they do?

Theyare found in the liver lining the walls of the sinusoids forming partof the reticuloendothelial system (RES) they are mandated to removedebris from the blood.

D.How is the ileum structurally different from the duodenum?

Theduodenum is the part of the small intestine where food enters thestomach, while, as the ileum is the second part of the intestine

E.What is the alimentary canal?

Thislong tube of interconnected structures carries food into our body,goes ahead to digest and absorb it, and finally excretes the wastethat is left over.


A.What do the three salivary glands have in common?

Theyall produce saliva and secrete amylase

B.How can you distinguish between the hard palate and soft palate?What&nbspdoes each structure do?

Thehard palate is made of bone, it is in the front of the mouth, and itholds the teeth. The soft palate on the other hand, it is made ofmuscles, it is located in the rear of the mouth and it aids in theswallowing and allowance of yawning.

C.Propose a reason why the liver is so large in the fetal pig.

Thereason why the fetal lever is so large is because in the fetus, theliver produces all the fetal blood.

D.Where can you find rugae? What is their function?

Itis found in the interior surface of the stomach, where they allow thestomach to expand and contract in relation to volume of food andfluid.

E.Where is the ileocecal valve?

Itis located in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen, close to theappendix region.

F.&nbspHow can you tell when you have transitioned from the smallintestine to thelargeintestine in the fetal pig?

Layersof the small intestine- Longitudinal muscle, Circular muscle, andOblique muscle, the large intestines do not digest or absorbnutrients Secretes mucus and absorbs water and electrolytes

G.What structure empties enzymes produced in the pancreas into theduodenum?

Thepancreatic ducts

H.Besides the digestive system, to what other system does thepancreas&nbspbelong to?

Theendocrine system



A.Describe the structure of the stomach. How is it modified to carryout its&nbspfunctions? How does it compare to that of the fetal pig?

Itis located in the left side of the abdominopelvic cavity and thecomponents of the stomach work depend on the contents coming in andout of the stomach.

B.Describe the structure of the intestines. How are they modified tocarry out&nbsptheir functions? How does the human intestine compareto the fetal pig?

Theyare coiled together and flattened out when there is nothing in them,however, when peristalsis occurs and there is stuff in them then theyblow up like a balloon. This similar to both the human and fetal pigintestines.

C.Describe the structure of the pancreas. How is the pancreas modifiedtocarryout its various functions? How does the human pancreas compareto&nbspthat of the fetal pig?

Itis elongated and lives behind the stomach, it secrets insulin andglucagon. The human pancreas is similar to that of the fatal pig, asthe pancreas is conserved across all mammal species.

D.Describe the structure of the teeth? How is this tissue modified tocarry out its function

Theteeth are made of enamel, dentin, cementum, and pulp. The tissue ismade up of hard plate.

A.What is hydrolysis?

Thisis a chemical reaction by which compounds react with water and it isused in the breakdown of polymers.

B.Complete the following table:

Enzyme Organ

Producing it site of action

What does it work on?

substrate optimal pH

Salivary Amylase

Salivary glands (mouth)




Pancreases (Duodenum)

Amino acids


Pancreatic Lipase

Pancreas (duodenum)

Fat molecules


C.How does BAPNA work?

Trypsinis a pancreatic enzyme that hydrolyzes proteins, BAPNA is a syntheticdye covalently bonded to an amino acid, although the solution iscolorless, it turns yellow when hydrolyzed. Since the covalent bondin BAPNA is similar to that found in amino acids within a protein, apositive hydrolysis indicates that trypsin has separated the bondbetween the dye and amino acid in BAPNA (Stevens and Hume, 2004).

D.You ran both a body temperature and room temperature test foreach&nbspenzyme you tested. Did the two temperatures seem to have aneffect on the enzyme Exercise? Why or why not?

Temperaturestend to differ either increasing or decreasing affecting the heat ofmolecules, thus, it is advisable to carry experiments in labs withconstant temperatures and keeping the body temperature at around 37C.This can help stabilize enzyme activities.

E.Why did you have control tubes in each experiment?

Thisallows for logical comparisons allowing you to properly analyze theeffects.

F.&nbspExplain how salivary amylase works on foods like crackers.

Itcatalyzes the breakdown of starch into maltase

G.Explain how trypsin works on proteins.

Itworks to break down the elastic fibers in the protein structure.

H.Fat digestion requires two steps? What are the steps and what enzymesare used to accomplish each step?

Lipidsare first broken down into fatty acids and glycerol, which are thenput through TCA cycle to generate energy. Lipase catalyzes the firstpart, and a whole series of enzymes catalyzes the rest.


Dosome research on the following digestive conditions: Acid Reflux,Peptic Ulcers and Diverticulitis.Foreach explain what it is, who it affects and some of the treatmentoptions for people who are afflicted by each condition.

AcidReflux-is an stomach disease/abnormality that occurs when the upper part ofthe stomach and LES move above the diaphragm allowing acid to move upto the esophagus. The way to treat acid reflux disease is to avoidthe foods and beverages that trigger symptoms.

PepticUlcersrefers to both gastric and duodenal ulcers mainly caused changingpatterns in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Treatment, wheredrugs are the cause then they should be stopped.

Diverticulitis-this is a small, out pouching of the colon causing inflammatoryresponse in the wall of the large intestine and the surroundingtissues. Treatment recommends a high fiber diet is recommended(Stevens and Hume, 2004).

A.How is the tissue of the kidneys structurally modified to aid infiltration?

Ithas tubules and is porous

B.What is important functionally about transitional epithelium?


C.What is the function of the ureter? How does its structure supportthis&nbspfunction?

Coveyurine from kidneys to bladder, enter base of bladder throughposterior wall, it does this by strength and frequency of musclecontractions change with amount of urine present

D.What is the function of the urethra? How does its structure supportthis&nbspfunction?

Urethradrains urine from bladder to outside of body, in male it is longerthan in female used to conduct semen.

Exercise2: Dissection and identification of a Sheep Kidney

A.What is the function of the fat that surrounds the kidneys?

Therenal fat pat encases each kidney and holds it in position. The fatalso acts as a protectivebarrier.

B.What is the function of the kidneys?

Processblood and form urine as a waste to be excreted. Eliminating toxins,metabolic wastes excess ions from blood

C.Name some ways in which the body excretes waste.

Exhaling,sweating, urination, and bowel movements

D.What is a nephron and what does it do?

glomeruluswhere urine begins and tubule where urine is concentrated andcollected

Exercise3 Human Kidney Structures

A.How is the tissue in the renal pyramids modified to carry out itsfunctions?

Ithas secreting and collecting ducts system

B.How is the density of the tissue on the renal cortex related to itsfunction?

Allowsfor ultra filtration

C.How does the structure of the renal medulla aid in its function?

Splitinto a number of sections and allows it to branch into interlobulararterioles

D.How is the tissue found in the renal pelvis modified to carry out itsfunction?

Itis covered by transitional epithelium which allow for it to stretchand act as a funnel



A.What is the normal pH range of urine?

Therange is 4.5to 8

B.What substances in the urine might indicate that a person hasdiabetes?

Presenceof albumin (a protein),glucose,ketones,and various other substances, however, may indicate malfunction ofthe kidneys (Clark, 2005)

C.What factors might affect the color, odor and pH of a urine sample?

Bacteria,diet, medicines and certain diseases

D.What are the three physiological processes involved in urineproduction?

GlomerularFiltration, Selective reabsobtion, and Tubular secretion

E.What would a high level of protein in the urine indicate?

Highacidity and a sign of kidney disease


A.Why are the testes located outside of the body in thescrotum?

Immaturesperm are temperature sensitive.

B.What process occurs in the seminiferous tubules?

Spermsare produced

C.Why do sperm and egg go through meiosis?

Tetradsand crossovers

D.Name the various follicles you can find inside a typical ovary.

Variousfollicles one can find inside a typical ovary areprimordial/primary/secondary follicles mature vesicular, rupturing,mature-corpus luteum as well as corpus albicans.

E.How is the endocrine system involved in reproduction?

Inthe creation and release of hormones, the chemical messengers thatregulate most of the body`s systems

F.What hormones lead to the maturation of both sperm and egg?

Inboth male and female pituitary gland produces folliclestimulating hormone(FSH)and luteinizing hormone(LH)

Pregnancyand Human Development

A.When does fertilization occur?

Ifone sperm doesmake its way into the fallopian tube and burrows into the egg, itfertilizes the egg then fertilization has occurred

TheReproductive System

B.At what point does an embryo turn into a fetus? Describe what a babylooks like at this stage of development.

After8 weeks – The unborn baby is now called a fetus

C.At what point is the brain fully developed? Describe the activitiesthis allows the baby to do?

6-7weeks: The brain develops into five areas

D.What is “quickening”? What is Lanugo? Give a possible functionfor Lanugo? When do these two phenomena occur?

Quickeningis the first time you feel your baby move between 18 and 24 weeksgestation. Lunago is soft hair that covers your baby`s entire body

E.Why is the 28th week a crucial point in the development of the fetus?

Thebaby’s brain is really beginning to develop into a more&nbspcomplexorgan.

F.Describe some of the physiological events that occur in a baby’sbody as it is born and leaves the womb behind.

Themother`s placenta helps the baby &quotbreathe&quot while it isgrowing in the womb after birth it takes about 10 seconds for thefirst breath inflating the lungs, and the baby’s central nervoussystem reacts to the sudden change in temperature and environment.


Anderson,R. (2013). Wilcox`ssurgical anatomy of the heart.Cambridge New York: Cambridge University Press

Clark,R. (2005). Anatomyand physiology: understanding the human body.Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Starr,C., Evers, C. &amp Starr, L. (2006). Biology:a human emphasis.Belmont, CA: Thomson, Brooks/Cole.

Stevens,C. E., &amp Hume, I. D. (2004). Comparativephysiology of the vertebrate digestive system. Cambridge University Press.