ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY 8
Prodromal phase of Schizophrenia
This is the first phase of Schizophrenia and can last for weeks ormonths. It is mostly characterized by symptoms of the disorder whichare but not limited to loss of interest in normal pursuits,withdrawal from friends and family, confusion, spending time aloneand preoccupation with philosophy and religion (Nelson, 2011).
This is the stage which follows Prodromal phase and can sometimesoccur suddenly. It is characterized by hallucinations, delusions, anddisturbances in thinking, as well as changes in behaviors. This phaseis also imminent with distortions in speech and the patient appearsabsolutely psychotic. Acute treatment for this stage is mainlynecessary when the symptoms persist for a long time (Nelson, 2011).
This phase has been said to resemble the initial Prodromal phasesince most of the symptoms such as being psychotic have subsided(Nelson, 2011). Symptoms such as withdrawal from the family membersand friends might still be imminent and the patient may still haveweird philosophical beliefs.
Schizophrenia has been known to occur during late teenage years andearly adulthood years.
Positive symptoms are also called Psychosis
Negative symptoms also include withdrawal from the family andfriends. Lack of motivation for work is also another form of negativesymptom of associated with Schizophrenia (Nelson, 2011).
Delusional disorder is a form of illness which has been saidto be characterized by non-bizarre delusions that are associated withlife such as being loved and does not depict other symptoms such asmood and psychotic symptoms. On the other hand, brief psychoticdisorder consists of psychotic symptoms such as delusions,disorganized speech and hallucinations. This type of disorder iscaused by extreme stressing conditions and the symptoms may last fora day.
There are 3 clusters of personality disorders namely
Cluster A personality disorder is a disorder that is said tohave odd behaviors as the central characteristic of the disorder. Anexample of this disorder is the paranoid personality disorder.
Cluster B personality disorder is a disorder characterized byextremely emotional responses to other people. An example of thisdisorder is antisocial personality disorder.
Cluster C personality disorder is a disorder with fearful behaviors.An example is the avoidant personality disorder.
Suicide assessment attempts to evaluate the likelihood of a personwith suicide thoughts committing suicide or causing self harm. Duringsuicide assessment, there are various risk factors that are assessedto evaluate the degree of a person committing suicide. The age of theperson, gender, social needs, history of alcohol or drug use, currentthoughts to end one’s life and the availability of lethal means toend one’s life. It is essential for the medical practitioner toestablish trust with the patient and use open questions when carryingout suicide assessment. Suicide assessment is mostly carried out whena person manifests a willing to end their lives such as causingintentional harm, contemplating suicide and people with past suicideattempts. It is used at such times to avert any plans of ending one’slife.
Internal disorders in childhood are the ones that do not exhibittheir characteristic outwardly and therefore cannot be easilyidentified. This is mainly exacerbated by the fact that he child maynot talk or explain its feelings. External disorders on the otherhand are the disorders whose characteristics can easily be seen fromthe behavior of the child. They may include disorders which make thechild cry continuously.
Disruptive Mood Dysregulation is a new form of disorder that wasidentified in the recent past. The disorder is common in children ofage 6 and above and it is characterized by frequent temper outburstsand it makes the functioning of such children at home and in schoolextremely difficult.
Anorexia and bulimia are food intake disorders with a lot ofelements in common, however, one key difference between the two isthat people with anorexia tend to eat little food because of thewarped perception they have with regard to their body weight. On thecontrary, people with bulimia tend to eat enormous food in a bingeand then induce vomiting or engage in strenuous exercise to reducecalories and avoid weight gain.
Assignment Part 2
It is evident from the case that Joe is an alcoholic and isunresponsive and also sleeps in the streets. He has abused alcoholand needs immediate medication. Joe is an engineer who is not workingafter being fired because of drinking. He is not married since hiswife left him due to his excessive drinking habits. The primaryproblem in the case is the excessive drinking habit exhibited by Joe.It is also clear that Joe is contemplating suicide and cannot makeproper judgments. It was found out that Joe had reported that he wastired with his life and wanted to kill himself. It was also found outthat his wife left him fours ago and he later lost his job two yearsago. They also found out that he was homeless and slept on thestreets. He left home when he was eighteen and joined the army. Thehistory of Joe presents his alcoholic father who physically abusedhim and his mother. Joe needs a plan of care that would discouragehim from drinking and that would offer advice to him with regard tothe dangers and effects of drinking.
Lucy is a student who disobeys the commands from her teacher. Shefeels offended when she is corrected by the teacher and she hasthreatened to kill the teacher. Lucy comes from a family where bothparents are busy and she has been left with the responsibility oftaking care of her 10 year old brother. The case presents a problemthat Lucy suffers from a disorder. It is clear that she has temperoutbursts which are characteristic of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation.It was found out that Lucy has the responsibility of taking care ofher brother and that she does not have time to go out with her peers.She therefore has weird and negative behaviors such as shoplifting.It was also found out that Lucy’s parents are extremely busy andtherefore she might be lacking a mentor. History of the clientindicates that she is an A student and hardly misses class. She hasalso lost weight in the recent past and finds it hard to sleep. It isclear that Lucy needs care and the plan of care should ensure thatshe is allowed to have more time with friends. It is also prudent toavoid leaving the responsibility of the child with Lucy.
Mike is a young person who has a disorder which makes him havehallucinations and delusions. Mike is suffering from Schizophrenia, acondition that makes patients to have delusions and hallucinationsabout nature and about their surroundings. It is clear that Mikebelieves that there are people who are coming for him. It was foundout that Mike has not had a shower for almost a month. This can beattributed to his fear for the environment and the people in hissurroundings. It is evident that Mike comes from a family that isfree of alcohol and drugs. However, his parents had certainconditions. His mother had a history of depression while his fatherhad a history of bipolar. Mike needs care and counseling to ensurethat he recovers from these hallucinations and delusions.
Nelson, H. E. (2011). Cognitive behavioraltherapy with schizophrenia: A practice manual. Cheltenham, U.K:Nelson Thornes.