A conceptual framework for total constraint management in construction Abstract

2

Aconceptual frameworkfortotalconstraintmanagementin construction

Abstract

Constraintsare conditionsthat hinderexecutionof workplanby constructioncrewsin thefield.Suchconditionsincludequalityconcerns,technicalsequencing, andspatial limitations.Constructionprojectsthat are complexare subjectto a numberof constraintsthat interferewith thebeginningorprogressionof operationsin thefield.Managingtheseconstraintseffectivelyisan importantfactorin to makesurethatone has a workplanthat is constraint-free resultingto successfulfieldoperations.Whilepaststudiesdealtwith constraintspartially,there should be a moredetailedclassificationas wellas understandingof typicalconstraintsin varioustypesof workactivitiesandacross all themainind1ustries.Thisshould be followedby a morepracticalmethodbe itmanualorautomatedto identifyandalsoto tracksuchconstraints.Thisresearchrecommendsa Total Constraint Management (TCM) foridentification,trackingas wellas resolutionof constructionconstraints.

Constraintsmainlyaffectcomplexconstructionprojects,forexample,largeinfrastructureconstructions,industrialplants,hencenegatively affectingtheoverall project.Apartfrom theusualconstrains, there is a needto addressotherconstrains before proceedingwith thework.Suchconstraintsincludeaccessinglatestconstructiondrawings,availability of materials,equipment,andtoolson-site, sufficientspaceforworkandassignmentof labor.Constructionprojectmanagementhas in manyyearsusedCritical Path Methodology (CPM) which indeedhas beenusefulespeciallyby communicatingoverall plans,as wellas theprogress.However,CPM is inadequateforefficientidentificationas wellas tracking of comprehensiveconstraints.CPM addressesprecedenceandtimeconstraintsonlyanditis difficultto maintain.Researchhas proposedforall-inclusivemethodthat will addressallconstraintsacross variousconstructionworksas thereportbelow suggests.

Rationale&amp Significance

ImplementingtheconceptTotal Constraint Manageme2ntas thispaperhas proposeditwill resultin integrationof workfaceplanningwith semi-automated processof identification,trackingas wellas resolutionof constraints.Thisresearchintendsto provideinformationonvariousconstraintsaffectingcomplexconstructionworksandprovidingsolutionsto suchconstraints.Methodology

Thisstudyusedliteraturesearchas theprimarysourceof data collection.Literaturereview

Constructionfieldactivitiescan bemanagedthrough re-planning team-level workpackagesgivena significantnumberof constraintsthatexists.Howeveridentifyingconstraintsmanually on team-level packagescan be a difficulttaskwhich isachievedthrough unplanned methodsendorsedduring theexecutionphaseof constructionwork.Without improvedautomationsupport,managementof constraintsis usuallyverydifficultandlessusefulat thesametimeitrequiresexperiencedfieldsupervision.Studieshaveshownthatfieldcrews/teamsaccomplishabout40-60% effectiveness on averageand3-6% of theentirecostof theprojectcostsgoesto safetyaccidents.Whencrewslacktherequiredresourcesas wellas informationto carryout thework,itresultsto wastingof timegatheringresourcesandalsoslowingdown theprocess.Thisis not a laborquestion,buta planningproblemwhich can besolvedthrough TCM.

TotalConstraint Management has createdconstraintstemplates that helpin identificationas wellas classificationof constraintsagainst Fields Installation Work Packs (FIWPs). Systematicmanagement,as wellas tracking of FIWPs alongside constraints,offerworkplansto fieldcrewsat a comprehensivematerialconstituentlevel without constraints.Constructionmanagementworkersoperatingat conventionalCPM schedulelevel are offeredvisibilityinto workbuffersthat are availableforfieldcrewsin relationto theCPM timetable activities.Visibilitywindowscan extendpast 3- 4 weeksin a conventionallook-ahead timetable, to 8 weeksorevenmore.3

ResearchershavealsoproposedWorkFace Planning (WFP) which is a methodof gettingcomponentsreadyto helpcrewsto carryout qualityworkin efficientandsafemanner.Amajornotionof WFP is theField Installation Work Package (FIWP). FIWP istermedas a constructiondeliverable partitioned from theConstruction Work Page (CWP) which is aconstructiondeliverable that is at a higherlevel. TheFIWPs workat a comprehensivelook-ahead planninglevel outside of thescheduleof CPM. FIWPs offera significantlevelof detailformanagementof crewto identifyclearlyandalsotrackthenecessaryresourcesandinformationbefore theconstructionworkstarts.WFP processhelpsin theidentificationandtracking of constraintsenablingFIWPs to be usedby fieldcrewsto carryout theworkefficiently.

Thenextimportantprocedurein FIWT is identificationof constraintsparticularto theworkthat has becomemorecomplextechnically. Ifproperidentificationof constraintsisnot done,conflictsmay occurin thefield.To achievezero constraintenvironments,researchers recommendeda combinationof theclassificationprocesswith template approach.Thisis boostedfurtherby opendata incorporationapproachwith ITsystemsto identifyconstraint statusat a detailedconstituentlevel. Constraintscan begroupedinto three majorcategoriesandvarioussubcategories in accordance with their characteristics.Thekeycategoriesincludeinformation,resources,andphysical.Constraintscan bedividedinto two based on their sources.Someconstraintsare identifiedmanually whileothers areidentifiedautomatically. Thesedivisionsensurethatconstraint managementis moreeffectiveand efficient.4Conclusion

Constraintsare commonin complexconstructionsworks,andtheyobstructtheexecutionof workplanby constructioncrewsin thefield.Thiscallsfora methodthat can providesolutionsto suchproblems.One suchmethodis Total Constraint Management, which incorporatesworkfaceplanningwith themethodof semi-automated identification,trackingas wellas resolutionof constraints.Acomputerizedsystemhas beenproposedto managethestatusof constrain, expediting,monitoring andalsoreporting.Researchers havecarriedout variousstudiesthat recommendtheimplementation of Total Constraint Management plan.With its adoption,fieldcrewswill be ableto performallconstructionactivitieswithout anyconstraints.

Bibliography

BlackmonTed, Saxena Rehul and Song, Lingguang. 2009. Aconceptualframeworkfortotalconstraintmanagementin construction.Houston:CRC Press.

Ballard,Herman. 2000. Thelast planner system of production control. Birmingham:University of Birmingham Press.

Sykes,Anna. 2010. Constructinga new agenda for architecture: architectural theory 1993-2009.New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

Walker,Anthony. 2004. Projectmanagement in construction.Oxford [u.a.]: Blackwell.

1 Blackmon Ted, Saxena Rehul and Song, Lingguang. 2009. A conceptual framework for total constraint management in construction. Houston: CRC Press.

2 Sykes, Anna. 2010. Constructing a new agenda for architecture: architectural theory 1993-2009. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

3 Ballard, Herman. 2000. The last planner system of production control. Birmingham: University of Birmingham Press.

4 Walker, Anthony. 2004. Project management in construction. Oxford [u.a.]: Blackwell.