Chilehas seven living dialects and a few extinct or nearly extinct. Someof the existing native languages are Rapa Nui Quechua HuillicheCentral Aymara Yamana Mapudungun and Kawesqar. Spanish is not theonly dialect imported from Europe a few thousand Chileans likewisetalk German. However the numbers of individuals who speak thelanguage have been decreasing since the Second World War.Additionally another developing language is the Chilean SignLanguage many thousands utilize the dialect and are supported bythe nation by incorporating the communication via gestures in itsbilingual-bicultural methodology to education.
ChileanSpanish stands separated from other Latin American languages becauseof the mix of indigenous dialects from the natives. As regionalvernaculars fluctuate from nation to nation even the individuals whounderstand speak fluently in Latin American Spanish can run into amisunderstanding in communication while in Chile. A Spanish speakerfrom South America can tell that a person has to learn ChileanSpanish since it is different from the Spanish language spoken inother countries (Silva-Corvalán 379).
ChileanSpanish is a piece of the "American Spanish group"alongside Caribbean (Venezuela Puerto Rico Panama DominicanRepublic northern Colombia and Cuba) Mexican Central AmericanAndean-Pacific (western Bolivia Peru Ecuador western Venezuela andColombia) and Plata River (Argentina Paraguay and Uruguay).
Countingthe 16 million Chileans more than 90% talk Spanish as their primarydialect. Like Andalusian Spanish a language can be difficult forspeakers (from Spain) of the Castilian version to comprehend.Numerous native inhabitants existed in the area preceding the entryof Spanish conquistadors. Nonetheless just 11 percent of thepopulace is indigenous today. Various dialects have ended up extinctor boundary extinct as the local populace waned (Silva-Corvalán74).
Afterthe Spanish started intermarrying with indigenous people groupspopulated Chile the association and support of the first CastilianSpanish started to fall away prompting the advancement of this newtongue.
InParaguay Argentina Uruguay Chile and a few places in centralAmerica Bolivia and Colombia there is a grammar characteristiccalled "voseo." In Spanish the second person of singularyou is normally "tú.” In other nations "you" willbe "vos. The syntax grammar and some colloquial expressions ofChilean Spanish relate to Argentinian Spanish (Prieto and Paolo 17).
Inany case the pronoun is redundant and a person can decide not toutilize it yet grammatically he or she ought to consider it. In theRío de la Plata locale (as well as Chile Argentina Paraguay andUruguay) vos has a language structure refinement for some tenses: inpresent for example a person would not say "tú hablas"but "vos hablás."
InChile an individual would not say "hablás" but "hablái."The pronoun utilized can be tú when the individual knows whom he orshe is communicating with for instance a partner or vos when heor she has a close relationship with them for instance family. Thisconjugation alongside the structure vos is not taught in schooldespite the fact that it is generally utilized (Stevenson 234). Asin the other parts of Latin America the second person plural is"ustedes" with the common conjugation.
Concerningphonetics of the dialect the accent is clear and contrasted withdifferent accents it sounds very musical. Of course in SouthAmerican Spanish c and z are affirmed like an s the finals are notfrequently claimed and the d between two vowels particularly in pastparticiples disappears (Silva-Corvalán 33).
Differencesfrom other Spanish languages
ChileanSpanish has a lot of different vocabulary and slang. Numerous wordsare acquired from neighboring Amerindian dialect Quechua.Chilenismos likewise acquire intensely from the local dialectMapudungun principally for names of animals and plants.
Thereare few territorial divisions inside the nation with the Spanishtalked in the Southern Northern and Central regions being generallysteady all through. Zones like Aysén Magallanes Chiloé or Aricahave more prominent contrasts particularly in the stress. There isan exceptional variety in the Spanish talked by distinctive socialclasses also focusing on the utilization of "voseo"among other grammatical characteristics (Prieto and Paolo 67).
InChile there are very few contrasts between the Spanish spoken in theCentral Southern and Northern regions of the nation in spite ofthe fact that there are eminent contrasts in zones like AysénMagallanes (primarily in the outskirt with Argentina) Chiloé orArica (particularly in their inflection). There is a momentousvariety in the Spanish talked by diverse social classesnotwithstanding. It additionally has solid impacts from theExtremadura Castúo in rustic ranges from Santiago to Valdivia yet afew creators point to the region of Andalusia and all the moreparticularly Sevilla as the greatest impact in the Chilean Spanish.
Analysisof the Phonetics and phonology
Thereare various phonetic peculiarities common to the majority of theChilean accents. However none of them independently are one of akind to Chilean Spanish. Relatively it is the specific mix ofstructures that set Chilean Spanish separated from different Spanishlanguages. These peculiarities include:
“Yeísmo”the merger of the phonemes. Therefore calló ("fell quiet")and cayó ("fell") are homophones both maintained [kaˈjo].In vernaculars that need yeísmo those two words would be claimedindividually [kaˈjo] and [kaˈʎo] (Stevenson 362). Despite the factthat yeísmo is normal to the majority of Latin America it is notthe occurrence that this gimmick ought to be viewed as a LatinAmerican one in light of the fact that both in Latin America andSpain there are areas with and without "yeísmo". Indeed inChile there are some individuals for the most part elderly speakersin country zones which are not "yeístas."
Thevelar consonants (g) (k) and (x) are palatalized or fronted beforefront vowels. In this manner guía ("guide") queso("cheddar") and jinete ("horseman/rider") arepronounced individually [ˈʝia][ˈceːso] and [çiˈn̪eːt̪e](Silva-Corvalán 359).
Word-and syllable ending with (s) is replaced with (h) or lost altogetheran alternate feature that is normal to many of Latin America whichis likewise regular to the southern a large portion of Spain andCanary Islands. Whether last(s) suctions or is omitted relies on uponvarious social territorial and phonological elements however byand large yearning is more regular particularly when going before aconsonant. Complete elision is most generally discovered word-at longlast yet is sort of less basic in general in formal or privilegeddiscourse (Prieto and Paolo 117).
Betweenword and vowels that end with (d) ordinarily omits or lenites (amethodology basic all through the Spanish-talking world the name ofValparaíso is really gotten from more seasoned Valparadiso) so thatciudad ("city") and contado ("told") areindividually [sjuˈð̞aː] and [kon̪ˈt̪aːo]. This is less basicin formal or privileged discourse.
Dueto the suctioned "s" pattern a person may expect that whenasking somebody how they are ("¿como estás?") he or shemay only drop the s and ask"¿como está?" yet for thissituation Chileans (particularly adolescent) ask "¿comoestaiiii?"
Chileansperiodically overlook the "d" for words that end in "ado"(ah-doh). This implies that as opposed to inquiring as to whether aperson would like to consume some "pescado" for supper aChilean is more inclined to inquire as to whether one needs a few"pes-cao" (which sounds very nearly like "pes-bovine").
Somewherealong the line amid the evolution of the Chilean language peoplebegan including "po" to the end of words for attention."Sí-po" and "no-po" (yes and no) are the mostwidely recognized despite the fact that “ya-po" (hurrypretty much) and "obvio-po" (obviously) are popular. Whensomebody is frustrated (and typically whiney) they may say a wholesentence pause and finally include "po" in the end(Prieto and Paolo 187).
Chileanlove is adding the diminutive to everything. They include "ito"or "ita" to words to indicate that something (or somebody)is little or a smaller rendition of something else. For instancechildren` names will frequently get lessened when a grown-up with thesame name is around or as an indication of friendship Carlos getsto be Carlitos (Car-lee-tos). This is not an unprecedented sensationall through the Spanish-talking world but Chileans regularly takethis propensity to the amazing impulsively turning everythinghumble. The most widely recognized cases are "técito"(tay-see-toh) "cafécito" (bistro see-toh) and "pancito(pahn-see-toh) that is a little tea a little espresso a negligiblebit of bread. In this connection the minor is utilized to decreasethe effect practically like an implicit conciliatory sentiment.Staying for a "cafécito" is positively less overwhelmingthan drinking a whole espresso. Who could say no to an additionalpiece of bread when it is simply a "pancito?" A personwould end up saying that he or she would be back "en un ratito"to mean a little bit (Silva-Corvalán 18).
Atthe point when alluding to an outsider by name chilenos utilize thearticles "el" and "la" before the name. Forinstance if David solicits Cristi who purchased peanut spread (fromall unusual oddities) she will react "La Hannah." This iswhat might as well be called saying "the Hannah."
Chileanslang words (known as "chilenismos") are a standout amongstthe most fun (and disappointing) things about learning Spanish inChile. When a person arrives in Chile he or she will utilize certainvocabulary he/ she adapted as a part of the school just to discoverno one uses those words anywhere else. Presently people are learningnew vocabularies (more chilenismos) that will not mean anything toanybody outside Chile. A ton of Chilean slang is affected byindigenous dialects for example Mapudungun and Quechua however itadditionally originates from Coa which is a vernacular talked like acode in jails. Clearly the normal Chilean does not comprehend Coahowever throughout the years a few words have invaded the prevalentvocabulary.
Güeón/weón(way-own)- This is a generally useful word to suit all purpose. Atthe point when chatting with companions it is a casual representationof companionship (most similar to "fella") however whenutilized with an alternate manner of speaking to somebody with whomyou aren`t great companions it signifies a bad attitude. Weón or weacan be utilized to allude to an item like "this thing does notwork" or "give me that thing" and so on. It canlikewise be utilized as a verb. However I still haven`t picked onthat specific subtlety. Adolescent chilenos can not resist theopportunity to sprinkle each sentence with weón (Stevenson 367).
Cachaí(cah-cheye)- Thrown in toward the end of sentences (or here and therein the center) to ask "You recognize what I mean?" Flaite(fly-tay) Trashy. A flaite (thing) is a particular sort of low-class(trashy) individual. It is sort of what might as well be called whitewaste in the United States but with its own particular uniquesociety obviously. Flaites are identifiable by their dress and by asort of music they listen to (reggaeton) and are generally glad to beflaite. Privileged individuals allude to anything they think is cheapor trashy as flaite (modifier).
Pololo(poh-low-low)- Boyfriend. Polola is mate and the verb pololearsignifies "to date." Carrete (Cah-reh-tay)- In short agathering. In spite of the fact that Chileans do utilize the saying"party" for gathering also it is generally utilized morefor respectable gatherings (birthday parties family social affairsand so on) though carrete alludes to individuals getting together toget tipsy (Silva-Corvalán 199).
Buenfinde (bwain feen-day)- Good weekend. It`s not exactly a chilenismosince "Buen blade de semana" is widespread Spanish for thesame thing yet it is a typical method for cutting off the end of thestatement and saying it.
Altiro (ahl tee-line)- Truly or right away "In the same way as ashot." People say this all the time and it took me so long toat last make sense of what they implied. I`m not certain if this is achilenismo however I`ve never become aware of it previously.
Laraja (la rah-ha)- Can be completely disgusting in a few settings yetin many connections it means something is magnificent. "¡estacanción es LA RAJA!" (This melody is marvelous!) Moreover theChilean pronunciation of English words is unique. There`s an immensemultiplication of English words as is likely the case numerousplaces in the world. For instance Chilean pronounces pancakes aspan-kay-kays.
Silva-CorvalánCarmen. AnInvestigation of Phonological and Syntatic Variation in SpokenChilean Spanish.Ann Arbor Michigan: University Microfilm International 1985. Print.
StevensonJeffrey L. TheSociolinguistic Variables of Chilean Voseo. 2007. Print.
PhonologicalProductions of Puerto Rican Spanish-Speaking Preschoolers.Texas Christian University 2011. Internet resource.
Prietoi V. P and Paolo Roseano. Transcriptionof Intonation of the Spanish Language.Muenchen: LINCOM 2010. Print.