1886May Day (International Workers Day)
1886May Day (International Workers Day)
Socialmovement is a group of people at different levels of the same valuesand interest towards realization of some stated goals. A socialmovement is successful only if a particular organization becomes itsleader. It refers to a group of individualwho organizes themselves assupporters or opponents of any social change. Social movement isalways made up of those people with no power in terms of politics. Assuch, all the people with no political power tend to come together sothat they could be heard. The members of any social group feel thatthey can do something against or for the current situation in thesociety. Social movement can be classified as a collective behaviorbecause of its characteristics and objectives. Such a group has amotivator that makes its members more active and participates fully.Motivation is what makes the members of any social movement workstowards transforming the present situation in the society (Locher,2002).
Mostsocial groups have some objectives, philosophies, and some particularlaws, which, the members should stick to them. Social movement comesin various types depending on the purpose it wants to achieve. Somesocial movement may be illegal because of the actions of its membersin the community. Some social movements are for the improvement ofthe development of the state while others turn against the state.Those actions that turn against the state engage in violence that hasremained to be a typical way of solving a problem. Some socialmovements for some time have been found to be for the destruction ofharmony within the state. Such movements start well as a voice to theless fortunate but at some level it loses its goals and mislead itsmembers (Green,2005).The 1886 May Day is one of the social movements that fit as acollective behavior because of its characteristics and objectives.Severe working conditions led to the rising of the 1886 May Dayinternational workers day. People use to work for up to 16 hoursgoing through tough times of getting some injuries. The working classpeople decided to struggle togain ability to work for 8 hours a day.People struggle to have their working hours shorten to 8-hour withoutaffecting their payment. Duringthe Haymarket Riot and Chicagomassacre of May 1886, people protested for the change in workinghours.At this day, some people among the protesters were injured somelost lives and others arrested because of the bomb that was throwntowards the police officers. The current international Labor Daycommemoratesthe Haymarket Riot and Chicago massacre day of 1886(Brexel,2004).
The1886 movement started in 1884 administering for the eight-hour daywhere workers organized themselves to fight for this working hours.They suggested that they have their working hours reduced,and thelabor of organizations should make their laws conform to theirrequest. During the protests, several number of people turned upothers organized while others joined the group, but unorganized.Although people protested for their rights, the American army and thepolice attacked the people violently. Several weapons purchased toguard against the striking workers. At the Haymarket Riot and Chicagomassacre, the police killed one striker and injured others. This actmade the anarchists called for support from protesters to demonstrateagainstthe brutal act of killing. Although, some people were arrestedand charged, the workers worldwide got their rights of working for atleast eight-hour a day. Four anarchists remained to be the championsfor they were executed without evidence for the sake of otherlaborers who suffered under capitalist slavery (Chiasson,1997).
Likeany other collective group, the 1886 Haymarket Riot and Chicagomassacre had the key leaders who were ready to bear the burden ofothers with the aim of having their desires fulfilled. Like the fouranarchists, they remainedas the pioneers of the eight-hour protestand champions of the May Day. The anarchists held position of beingleaders who had great influence on people. Most people believed intheir philosophies and their ability to convince people to protestagainst the brutal act of the police (Green,2005).The 1886 Haymarket Riot and Chicago massacre demonstration was themost effective protest that showed the importance of solidarity amongthe workers. It is from the 1886 demonstration the labor unionsworldwide became effective towards serving the needs of theemployees. It is from the demonstration that all the other countrieswere manipulated on claiming for the favorable working conditionswith at least not more than eight hours of working. The Americanfederation of labor became effective to the level of organization aworldwide demonstration as a way of fighting for the rights of theemployees.The Haymarket Riot and Chicago Massacre marked an importantday as a channel to the oppressed workers. It remained as a basisunder which, the voice of the oppressed laborers could be heard. TheHaymarket Riot and Chicago Massacre of 1886 demonstration gainedsupport from one organization union, which is the American Federationof Labor, making it to be more successful in its protest (Chiasson,1997).
Asa collective behavior, the Hay market riot seemed to have deviatedfrom the social norm. Most people suffered on the process of fightingfor the eight-hour working condition. The government of that timenever understood the behavior of the protestors instead it used forcethat resulted to more bizarre. The American army and the police wereused to stop the protest that ended up in having many people injuredothers lost lives. This acted as a sign of misunderstanding of thegovernment on its laborers who were on a mission for their right. Thechallenge that existed between the protesters and the government ofthat time was the wide gap of misunderstanding. Each party considereditself better and of great sense (Green,2005).The gap between the behavior of the protesters and the episodesseemed to be wide and none of them understood the other. The value–added theory explained the reason for protesting of the laborers.The theory justifies the act of protesting that the Americangovernment ought to have implored. Most leaders that gear the socialmovement such as the anarchists areincriminated for being bad leadersyet the truth of the matter is the opposite of the former. The reasonfor incriminating the leaders of any social group is that some ofthem are under the influence of the political leaders. The politicalleaders for a longtime have been associated with gearing the socialgroups for their personal interests. Although the 1886 Haymarket riotcost some lives, it remained a social movement is reformative andcurrently its outcome have changed the life of every laborer (Locher,2002).
The1886 Haymarket riot and Chicago massacre had various impacts on manyinstitutions. The common impact to all institution is the result ofanti-labor sentiment that led to the reduction of working hours tothe eight-hour working condition. The outcome enabled the laborers toenjoy their work as part of employment not oppression. All the laborinstitution realized the need to adopt the eight-hour workingcondition that favored all the employees. The government institutionsformed labor unions meant to represent the employees and became thechannels to which they air out the opinions and requests. Such unionsmade the communication between the government and employees becameeasier hence avoiding frequency occurrence of protests (Danver,2010).
Thesignificant outcome is the May Day that is marked every year acrossover eighty countries in respect to the martyrs and all theparticipants who fought for reasonable working hours. The event ofthe Haymarket riot result to embracing of freedom of speech. Peoplegot liberty to speak their opinions although some conditions wereestablished to guide them on the use of this freedom. Communal dialogbetween the government and workers became a tool to counteract theoccurrence of strikes among the employees. The Haymarket riot andmassacre changedthe lives of many individuals. Many workers managedto get enough time to spend with their families after the eight-hourcondition was passed. As a result, many individuals became richeconomically as they got enough time to invest unlike before wherethey worked for sixteen hours. The effect is felt today as familymembers can stay together after work hence able to tackle all thefamily issue together. The effect of Haymarket riotis felt in howsocial justice is practiced in courts today. The anarchists wereexecuted without real evidence of the crimes they committed yet noone defended them. They suffered as martyrs for the sake of therights of the workers. Presently, the courts can pass a fair verdictafter considering the evidence that is on the ground (Brexel,2004).
TheHaymarket riot and Chicago massacre became the basis fortheestablishment of other social movements such as the labor unionswhere youths also gained access. Many social and economic reformscame up. Such reforms involved remunerations of workers as well asthe implementation of eight- hour working condition. Currently, allindustries consider May Day an international labor day where allworkers present their work to the public. The outcome of Haymarketriot made a positive change to some states such as France wherepeople began practicing peaceful demonstration. Those agitated forviolent and strikes were arrested. Simulative environment, duration,the rates of wages, and interpersonal relations became of greatconcerns to every employee at the place of work. Every organizationbegan to check on the working condition of its employees. Presently,most workers get shelter, better wage, and favorable workingconditions provided to them by their organizations (Danver,2010).
Someresearchers claim the 1886 Haymarket riot and Chicago massacrecontinue to lose its meaning. The struggle for a short working hourhas its centrality in thepolitical system. In this light, moreproblems associated to working conditions arise due to politicalinterference. The current challenges that workers continue toexperience at workplace include sexism, racism among other arisingproblems. Most bodies have ignored the real meaning of the May Day,which was meant to be the international workers day. Currently, anadditional working hour began to be paid as an extra hour to motivatethe workers. With the introduction of payment on extra working hour,the white-collar job gained fame and people started working under thewhite-collar jobs. The pressure of white –collar job grows at highrate. Some successful organizations have assimilated the mode ofpaying its employees for the extra hour. The Haymarket tragedy becamea source of employment to the artists who found some work such asdeveloping the monuments meant for commemorations. Labor leadersgained courage in leading the labor unions. It is from the Haymarketriot that people learned that they could be heard well when in agroup, unlike an individual. As a matter of the fact, people startedto see a demonstration as a way of airing out their views at the timetheir request have not been fulfilled before. Most of the currentdemonstrations trace the origins to capitalism where people struggleto have their working conditions more simulative (Newton-Matza,2014).
Conclusively,the Haymarket riot and Chicago massacre remained to be theoutstanding event that marks the foundation of the labor unions. Theevent changed the lives of many from every level of all theinstitutions. Youths began to join the labor union and work togetherhence promoting the nationsdevelopment. Even though, some people losttheir lives, the significant of the event remained unmoved. Those wholost their lives are considered martyrs as they brought reform to allthe workers in the entire world. The labor unions however became thevoice for the oppressed workers to the present times it is still achannel where workers pass their sentiments. It is of significant tocommemorate the event of the 1886 Haymarket riot as way ofmaintaining its meaning, which is relevant to all the workers.
Brexel,B. (2004). TheKnights of Labor and the Haymarket Riot: The fight for an eight-hour workday.New York: Rosen Pub. Group.
Chiasson,L. (1997). Trialsas media events.Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Danver,S. L. (2010). Revolts,protests, demonstrations, and rebellions in American history: Anencyclopedia.Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.
Green,J. R. (2005). The Globalization of a Memory: The Enduring Remembranceof the Haymarket Martyrs around the World.”. Labor:Studies in Working-Class History of the Americas,2(4).
Locher,D. A. (2002). Collectivebehavior.UpperSaddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Newton-Matza,M. (2014). Disastersand Tragic Events.Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.