1. Plosives Bilabial

  1. Plosives

Bilabial

Labiodental

Dental

Alveolar

Portalveolar

Retroflex

Palatal

Velar

Uvular

Put

Bid

Spot

Bet

Lit

Beat

Spit

Sat

Spoilt, Spilt, bite, hid, burnt, fed, kept, cut, matting, stop, rant, hit, lend, get, spend, Let, spelt, bent. Bind, Find

Gigging, ragged

Clinging

Digging

Sinking

  1. Nasal

Bilabial

Labiodental

Dental

Alveolar

Portalveolar

Retroflex

Palatal

Velar

Uvular

Hummering

Drink

Spank

Sprinkle

Shake

Hanging

Ringing

Mourning

Hissing

Hear, Hold

Flinging

  1. Fricative

Bilabial

Labiodental

Dental

Alveolar

Portalveolar

Retroflex

Palatal

Velar

Uvular

Think, thwart,

Thinning

thrive

Save, prove

Face, sue

Vote

fluttering

Breath, Thistle

Tether

Practice

Raise

Cruise

Possess

Knows

Cede

Sip

Zip

Speak

Rise

Shipping

Fishing

Visualize

  1. Approximant

Bilabial

Labiodental

Dental

Alveolar

Portalveolar

Retroflex

Palatal

Velar

Uvular

Lapping

Judge

Chip

belch

  1. Lateral Approximant

Bilabial

Labiodental

Dental

Alveolar

Portalveolar

Retroflex

Palatal

Velar

Uvular

Play

Help

Look

Press

Rap

Paddle

PhonologicalAnalysis of English Strong Verbs

Inthis section we will be looking at the phonological perspective inanalyzing strong verbs and evaluating the methods with which theanalysis is done.

3.1Plosive Consonants

Plosiveconsonants also known as oral stops are prominent in strong verbsespecially as end sounds. The strong verbs with plosive consonantends in the data set that have been selected for analysis includepeck, rub and spot. In producing these sounds, an individual beginsby blocking airflow. This process is seen to take place in threestages or steps. First, there is direct interaction between theactive and passive articulator hence resulting in a completehindrance of airflow, words such as rant which end with /t/ isproduced through obstructing the airflow. (Brown, 2013).

Secondly,the sounds are also produced as a result of obstructed air beingcompressed. And thirdly, the trodden air is released in terms ofexplosion. Thus through this, there are six consonants that areproduced. They are the bilabial [p] and [b], alveolar [t] and [d],and velar [k] and [g]. Through these consonants we have verbs such asspoilt, spilt, bite, hid, burnt, fed, kept, cut, matting, stop, rant,hit, lend, get, peck, rub, spot and gagged.

Theend sound of rub is produced with both lips pressed togethertherefore it is a plosive bilabial verb that ends with [b]. whilespilt, spoilt, cut and hit among others are produced when the tip ofthe tongue is firmly pressed on the middle section of the alveolarridge and hence it is known as plosive alveolar verb. The verbsgigging and ragged are uttered when the back of the tongue is on thesoft palate. As these strong verbs end with [g], which is producedwhen the back of the tongue pushes up against the soft palate toconstrict airflow, they are classified as plosive velar verbs.

Theseare clearly significant as mentioned in section 2.1.3 as these verbsare illustrations of how the old grammatical classifications of verbsno longer apply to current classifications of verbs as a result ofchanges in usage. For example in old English it would have been anorm to add –ed to the verb spoil to make it past tense but withtime it shortened to spoilt (plosive alveolar) perhaps to achievemore efficient speech.

3.2Fricative Consonants and Approximants

Fricativesconsonants are those that are produced by means of a forced air whichoccurs as a result of two articulators closing. Usually it occurs asa result of lower lip closing against the upper teeth for instanceconsonant [f] or even the back of the tongue closing against the softpalate. Verb sounds such as practice, raise, cruise, possess, knows,cede, think and thwart are produced via fricative consonants whichoccur by mere obstruction of airflow but not a complete blockage ofair. Thus pronunciation of [s] in this case means a gap is leftbetween the active and passive articulator as the air flows from theoral cavity. Approximants are produced through constriction of thearticulator which is minimal to allow for any friction. Some of theverbs that are categorized under this section include help, play,look, and press among others.

3.3Nasals

Hummeris a verb that is categorized in the IPA model as bilabial nasal. Thesounds come out through the consonant m. The sound is produced as aresult of lips being kept together hence forming a completeobstruction. In producing the sound, the soft palate is usuallylowered to allow air to pass through the nasal cavity leaving thevocal cords to vibrate.

Nasalsounds such as drink, bank, hanging, hummer, mourning, and holdproduce different sounds (Ladefoged 579). When pronouncing the nasalsounds with n consonants, it is done by allowing air to move throughnasal passage while at the same time leaving the lips somewhatseparated. The tongue touches the top part of the mouth also knownas the alveolar behind the teeth hence one feels the vibration.

Othersounds like hummer are made through tight press on the lips and atthe same time making sound with the vocal chords. The –ng soundsare made through passing air in the nasal passage though the tonguewhich is placed in different positions as compared to that whenlearning to utter the N sound. Further, the tongue is raised and putback in the mouth (What 31).

Inall of the above accounts, it has to be noted that thetranscriptions referred to only reflect sound forms produced when the words are said in the Standard form of English. The existence ofongoing modifications which are being made in everyday interactivespeech is not captured. Thus it is valid to pose the question howcan future works postulate a structure which allows for alterations.

1.4. Analysisof Pronunciation

Wordssuch as help, laugh, fish, split with unvoiced sounds like p, f, s,k, , and , often the final –ed in its simple past is pronouncedlike t as pronounced in the word cut(Hartmann 23). Usually, the –eis silent (Albright 4). When pronouncing the simple past of wordssuch as breathe, hummer, tether and look the final –ed sound isusually pronounced as d like in the case of a good. However, -eremains silent.

Forverbs ending in d and t the final -ed is pronounced Id as in thefinal two letters of the word did (Wall et al., 43). However, -e isnot silent though the final –ed sound adds another syllable to theend of the verb. Dental fricatives such as breathe or tether are bothpronounced interdentally with the tongue blade on the lower sectionof the back of the upper teeth while at the same time having the tipbulging a tad bit. In pronouncing at the beginning, the /th/ isusually voiceless.

Giventhe above analysis of pronouncing strong verbs, we once again seethat a standard transcription of these verbs is limiting andunreflective of the real way in which it is evolving in speech. Forexample in cockney slang the word split would not even end with theplosive alveolar /t/. It would simply end with a glottal stop. Thuspattern of pronunciation where the end sound is almost completelydropped in past tense forms of strong verbs is also seen in otheraccents of English. Thus we have to be aware that though currentliterature on phonetic norms can aid our understanding of how strongverbs have evolved, they still fall short in reflecting how theseverbs are currently evolving.

WorksCited

Albright,Robert W. The international phonetic alphabet: Its backgrounds anddevelopment. 1958.

Brown,Adam. &quotInternational Phonetic Alphabet.&quot The Encyclopediaof Applied Linguistics (2013).

Hartmann,Reinhard Rudolf Karl, and Francis Colin Stork. &quotDictionary oflanguage and linguistics.&quot (1972).

InternationalPhonetic Association, ed. Handbook of the International PhoneticAssociation: A guide to the use of the International PhoneticAlphabet. Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Ladefoged,Peter, and Morris Halle. &quotSome major features of theInternational Phonetic Alphabet.&quot Language (1988): 577-582.

Ladefoged,Peter. &quotThe revised international phonetic alphabet.&quotLanguage (1990): 550-552.

Wall,Joan. International phonetic alphabet for singers: a manual forEnglish and foreign language diction. Caldwell Publishing Company,1989.